Skip to main content

Enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides from corn stover and corn cobs treated with aqueous ammonia

Abstract

A novel method of producing food-grade xylooligosaccharides from corn stover and corn cobs was investigated. The process starts with pretreatment of feedstock in aqueous ammonia, which results delignified and xylan-rich substrate. The pretreated substrates are subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan using endoxylanase for production of xylooligosaccharides. The conventional enzyme-based method involves extraction of xylan with a strong alkaline solution to form a liquid intermediate containing soluble xylan. This intermediate is heavily contaminated with various extraneous components. A costly purification step is therefore required before enzymatic hydrolysis. In the present method, xylan is obtained in solid form after pretreatment. Water-washing is all that is required for enzymatic hydrolysis of this material. The complex step of purifying soluble xylan from contaminant is essentially eliminated.

Refining of xylooligosaccharides to food-grade is accomplished by charcoal adsorption followed by ethanol elution. Xylanlytic hydrolysis of the pretreated corn stover yielded glucan-rich residue that is easily digestible by cellulase enzyme. The digestibility of the residue reached 86% with enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units/g-glucan. As a feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production, corn cobs are superior to corn stover because of high xylan content and high packing density. The high packing density of corn cobs reduces water input and eventually raises the product concentration.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    Modler, H. W. (1994), Int. Dairy J. 4, 383–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Suwa, Y., Koga, K., Fujikawa, S., Okazaki, M., Irie, T., and Nakada, T. (1999), US 5939309.

  3. 3

    Yu, S., Yong, Q., and Xu, Y. (2002), Faming Zhuanli Shengqing Gongkai Shuomingshu, CN 1364911 A, 7.

  4. 4

    Crittenden, R. G., and Playne, M. J. (1996), Trends Food Sci. Technol. 7, 353–361.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Vazquez, M. J., Alonso, J. L., Dongminguez, H., and Parajo, J. C. (2000), Trends Food Sci. Technol. 11, 387–393.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Vazquez, M. J., Alonso, J. L., Dongminguez, H., and Parajo, J. C. (2001), World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 17, 817–822.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Kabel, M. A., Carvalheiro, F., Garrote, G., et al. (2002), Carbohydrate Polymers 50, 47–56.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Carvalheiro, F., Esteves, M. P., Parajo, J. C., Pereira, H., and Girio, F. M. (2003) Bioresource Technol. 91, 93–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Takao, Y. and Yoshio, I. (1996), Japanese Patent JP 5194241.

  10. 10

    Watanabe, T., Karina, M., Sudiyani, Y., Koshijima, T., and Kuwahara, M. (1993), Wood Res. 79, 13–22.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Gubitz, G. M., Csom, G., Johansson, C. I., and Saddler, J. N. (1998), International Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry, 7th, Vancouver, B. C., June 16–19, CC167-C170. Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Technical Section, Montreal, Que.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Yang, R., Xu, S., and Wang, Z. (2001), Zhounguo Liangyou Xuebao 16 (6), 43–46.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Izumi, Y., Sugiura, J., Kagawa, H., and Azumi, N. (2002), US patent application 2002195213 A1, 16pp.

  14. 14

    Laboratory Analytical Procedures (2004), NREL, Golden, CO.

  15. 15

    Kim, T. H. and Lee, Y. Y. (2004), App. Biochem. Biotechnol. 121–124, 1119–1131.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Frederick, M. M., Frederick, J. R., Fratzke, A. R., and Reilly, P. J. (1981), Carbohydrate Res. 97 (1), 87–103.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Cai, J. M. Wu, K., Pan, R. R. et al. (2000), Chinese patent CN 1266633.

  18. 18

    Mao, L.-S., Xu, Y., Song, X.-Y., Yong, Q., Yu, and Yu S.-Y. (2001), Linchan Huaxue Yu Gongye 21 (4), 33–38.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Pellerin, P., Gosselin, M., Lepoutre, J.-P., Samain, E., and Debeire, P. (1991), Enzyme Microb. Technol. 13, 617–621.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. Y. Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zhu, Y., Kim, T.H., Lee, Y.Y. et al. Enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides from corn stover and corn cobs treated with aqueous ammonia. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 130, 586–598 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1385/ABAB:130:1:586

Download citation

Index Entries

  • Corn stover
  • corn cobs
  • xylooligosaccharides
  • xylan
  • aqueous ammonia
  • pretreatment
  • endoxylanase