, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 65–77 | Cite as


The social evolution of a human brain mapping database
  • Angela R. LairdEmail author
  • Jack J. Lancaster
  • Peter T. Fox
Original Article


Human brain mapping is an experimental discipline that establishes structure-function correspondences in the brain through the combined application of experimental psychology, human neuroscience, and noninvasive neuroimaging. A deep and diverse literature on the functional organization of the human brain is emerging, which has pushed neuroimaging squarely into the scientific mainstream. Because of this rapid growth, there is a great need to effectively collect and synthesize the body of literature in this field. The BrainMap database was created in response to this need as an electronic environment for modeling the human brain through quantitative meta-analysis of the brain mapping literature. BrainMap was originally conceived in 1987 and has received continuous funding from 1988 to 2004. During this time, BrainMap has consistently evolved to meet the challenges of an ever-changing field and continues to strive toward higher levels of applicability. In this article, we discuss BrainMap’s structure and utility, and relate its progress and development as a neuroinformatics tool.

Index Entries

Databases BrainMap human brain mapping functional neuroimaging neuroinformatics data entry problem 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cox, R. W. (1996) AFNI: software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages. Comput. Biomed. Res. 29, 162–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fox, P. T. and Lancaster, J. L. (2002) Mapping context and content: the BrainMap model. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 319–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fox, P. T., Huang, A., Parsons L. M., Xiong J. H., Zamarippa F., Rainey L., Lancaster J. L. (2001) Location-probability profiles for the mouth region of human primary motor-sensory cortex: model and validation. Neuroimage 13, 196–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fox, P. T., Lancaster, J. L., Parsons, L. M., Xiong, X. H., Zamarripa F. (1997) Functional volumes modeling: theory and preliminary assessment. Hum. Brain Mapp. 5, 306–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gardner, D., Toga, A. W., Ascoli, G. A., et al. (2003) Towards effective and rewarding data sharing. Neuroinformatics 1, 289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Laird, A. R., McMillan, K. M., Lancaster, J. L., et al. (2005) A comparison of label-based meta-analysis and activation likelihood estimation in the Stroop task. Hum. Brain Mapp., in press.Google Scholar
  7. Lancaster, J. L., Woldroff, M. G., Parsons, L. M., et al. (2000) Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain mapping. Hum. Brain Mapp. 10, 120–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. National Institutes of Health (2003) Final NIH statement on sharing research data. Available at: sharing/index.htm.Google Scholar
  9. Neumann, J., Lohmann, G., Derrfuss, J., and Yves von Cramon, D. (2005) The meta-analysis of functional imaging data using replicator dynamics. Hum. Brain Mapp., in press.Google Scholar
  10. Nielsen, F. A. and Hansen, L. K. (2002) Modeling of activation data in the BrainMap database: detection of outliers. Hum. Brain Mapp. 15, 146–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Penny, W. D., Ashburner, J., Kiebel, S., et al. (2001) Statistical parametric mapping: An annotated bibliography. Available at Scholar
  12. Pittendrigh, S. and Jacobs, G. (2003) NeuroSys: a semistructured laboratory database. Neuroinformatics 1, 167–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Talairach, J. and Tournoux, P. (1988) Coplanar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain. Thieme Medical, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  14. Turkeltaub, P. E., Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Zeffiro, T. A. (2002) Meta-analysis of the functional neuroanatomy of single word reading: method and validation. NeuroImage 16, 765–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Van Horn, J. D., Grethe, J. S., Kostelec, P., et al. (2001) The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Center (fMRIDC): the challenges and rewards of large-scale databasing of neuroimaging studies. Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. B 356, 1323–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Xiong, J., Rao, S., Jerabek, P., et al. (2000) Intersubject variability in cortical activations during a complex language task. Neuroimage 12, 326–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela R. Laird
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jack J. Lancaster
    • 1
  • Peter T. Fox
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Imaging CenterUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan Antonio

Personalised recommendations