Immunologic Research

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Innate immune response induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection

  • Byung S. Kim
  • JoAnn P. Palma
  • Daeho Kwon
  • Alyson C. Fuller


Although the causative agents of human multiple sclerosis (MS) are not known, it is suspected that a viral infection may be associated with the initiation of the disease. Several viral disease models in mice have been studied to understand the pathogenesis of demeylination. In particular, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) has been extensively studied as a relevant model. Various cytokines and chemokines are produced upon viral infection by different cell types, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages; dendritic cells (DCs); and glial cells, such as astrocytes, microglia, and oligoden-drocytes. The upregulation of the corresponding molecules are also found in MS and are likely to play an important role in the protection and/or pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease. In this review, the type of cells and molecules, gene-activation mechanisms as well as their potential roles in protection and pathogenesis will be discussed.

Key Words

Demyelination Theiler's virus Cytokines Chemokines Signal transduction 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byung S. Kim
    • 2
    • 1
  • JoAnn P. Palma
    • 2
    • 1
  • Daeho Kwon
    • 2
    • 1
  • Alyson C. Fuller
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicago
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology-ImmunologyNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicago

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