, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 109–117 | Cite as

Epidemiology, trends, and morbidities of obesity and the metabolic syndrome

  • George A. Bray
  • Tracy Bellanger


Obesity has been described as an epidemic because of the rapid increase in the number of overweight and obese individuals over the past 20 yr. This increasing prevalence of obesity is a worldwide phenomenon affecting both children and adults. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of central adiposity, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia (high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol). When three of these five criteria are present, the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes is increased 1.5-to 2-fold. As body weight, expressed as the BMI, rises, there are a number of other diseases that are associated with it. First, life spain is shortened and the risk of sudden death increases. Second, the risk of diabetes, gall bladder disease, hypertension, heart disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and certain forms of cancer also increase.

Key Words

Central adiposity body massindex prevalence morbidity mortality diabetes cardiovascular disease 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bray, G. A. (2004). Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 28(1), 34–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bray, G. A. and Champagne, C. M. (2005). J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105(5 Pt 2), 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., and Johnson, C. L. (2002). JAMA 288(14), 1723–1727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults—The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health. (1998). Obes. Res. 6(Suppl. 2), 51S-209S.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2000; 894, i–xii, 1–253.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fontaine, K. R., Redden, D. T., Wang, C., Westfall, A. O., and Allison, D. B. (2003). JAMA 289(2), 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P. T., and Ross, R. (2004). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(3), 379–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bray, G. A. (2004). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89(6), 2583–2589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (2001). JAMA 285(9), 2486–2497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hedley, A. A., Ogden, C. L., Johnson, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., and Flegal, K. M. (2004). JAMA 291(23), 2847–2850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ogden, C. L., Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., and Johnson, C. L. (2002). JAMA 288(14), 1728–1732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flegal, K. M., Graubard, B. I., Williamson, D. F., and Gail, M. H. (2005). JAMA 293(15), 1861–1867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mokdad, A. H., Bowman, B. A., Ford, E. S., Vinicor, F., Marks, J. S., and Koplan, J. P. (2001). JAMA 286(10), 1195–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). Accessed March, 2005, at http:// Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ford, E. S., Giles, W. H., and Dietz, W. H. (2002). JAMA 287(3), 356–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McNeill, A. M., Rosamond, W. D., Girman, C. J., et al. (2005). Diabetes Care 28(2), 385–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meigs, J. B., Williams, K., Sullivan, L. M., et al. (2004). Diabetes Care 27(6), 1417–1426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peeters, A., Barendregt, J. J., Willekens, F., Mackenbach, J. P., Al Mamun, A., and Bonneux, L. (2003). Ann. Intern. Med. 138(1), 24–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary diagnosis and management of obesity. Handbooks in Health Care. Newtown. PA.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Allison, D. B., Fontaine, K. R., Manson, J. E., Stevens, J., and VanItallie, T. B. (1999). JAMA 282(16), 1530–1538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mokdad, A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., and Gerberding, J. L. (2004). JAMA 291(10), 1238–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., et al. (1995). N. Engl. J. Med. 333(11), 677–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Calle, E. E., Thun, M. J., Petrelli, J. M., Rodriguez, C., and Heath, C. W. Jr. (1999). N. Engl. J. Med. 341(15), 1097–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waaler, H. T. and Lund, E. (1983). Br. J. Cancer 48(1), 149–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sjostrom, L. V. (1992). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55(2 Suppl.), 516S-23S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Rotnitzky, A., and Manson, J. E. (1995). Ann. Intern. Med. 122(7), 481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chan, J. M., Rimm, E. B., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., and Willett, W. C. (1994). Diabetes Care 17(9), 961–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ravussin, E. (1993). Diabetes Care 16(1), 232–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sjostrom, C. D., Lissner, L., and Sjostrom, L. (1997). Obes. Res. 5(6), 519–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hansen, B. C., Bodkin, N. L., and Ortmeyer, H. K. (1999). Toxicol. Sci. 52(2 Suppl.), 56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Matteoni, C. A., Younossi, Z. M., Gramlich, T., Boparai, N., Liu, Y. C., and McCullough, A. J. (1999). Gastroenterology 116(6), 1413–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bellentani, S., Saccoccio, G., Masutti, F., et al. (2002). Ann. Intern. Med. 132(2), 112–117.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ko, C. W. and Lee, S. P., (2002). Obesity and gallbladder disease. In: Bray, G. A. and Bouchard, C. (eds.) Handbook of obesity: etiology and pathophysiology. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker: New York, pp. 919–934.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stampfer, M. J., Maclure, K. M., Colditz, G. A., Manson, J. E., and Willett, W. C. (1992). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55(3), 652–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Caroli-Bosc, F. X., Pugliese, P., Peten, E. P., et al. (1999). Digestion 60(4), 344–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rocchini, A. P. (2002). Obesity and blood pressure regulation. In: Bray, G. and Bouchard, C. (eds.) Handbook of obesity. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kambham, N., Markowitz, G. S., Valeri, A. M., Lin, J., and D'Agati, V. D. (2001). Kidney Int. 59(4), 1498–1509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Taylor, E. N., Stampfer, M. J., and Curhan, G. C. (2005). JAMA 293(4), 455–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meigs, J. B., D'Agostino, R. B. Sr., Wilson, P. W., Cupples, L. A., Nathan, D. M., and Singer, D. E. (1997). Diabetes 46(10), 1594–1600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Despres, J. P. and Krauss, R. M. (2002). Obesity and lipoprotein metabolism. In: Bray, G. and Bouchard, C. (eds.) Handbook of obesity. Marcel Dekker: New York.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Poirier, P., Giles, T. D., Bray, G. A., et al. (2006). Circulation 113(6), 898–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klein, S., Burke, L. E., Bray, G. A., et al. (2004). Circulation 110(18), 2952–2967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rich-Edwards, J. W., Goldman, M. B., Willett, W. C., et al. (1994). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171(1), 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grodstein, F., Goldman, M. B., and Cramer, D. W. (1994). Epidemiology 5(2), 247–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yen, S. S. C. (1999). Chronic anovluation due to CNS-hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. In: Yen, S. S. C., Jaffee, R. B., and Barbeiri, R. L. (eds.) Reproductive endocrinology: physiology, pathophysiology and clinical management. Saunders: Philadelphia, p. 516.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Strohl, K. P., Strobel, R. J., and Parisi, R. A. (2004). Obesity and pulmonary function. In: Bray, G. and Bouchard, C. (eds.). Handbook of obesity: evaluation and treatment. Marcel Dekker: New York.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Caples, S. M., Gami, A. S., and Somers, V. K. (2005). Ann. Intern. Med. 142(3), 187–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Felson, D. T., Anderson, J. J., Naimark, A., Walker, A. M., and Meenan, R. F. (1988). Ann. Intern. Med. 109(1), 18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gortmaker, S. L., Must, A., Perrin, J. M., Sobol, A. M., and Dietz, W. H. (1993). N. Engl. J. Med. 329(14), 1008–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Williams, J., Wake, M., Hesketh, K., Maher, E., and Waters, E. (2005). JAMA 293(1), 70–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Strauss, R. S. and Pollack, H. A. (2003). Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 157(8), 746–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fontaine, K. R., Cheskin, L. J., and Barofsky, I. (1996). J. Fam. Pract. 43(3), 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carpenter, K. M., Hasin, D. S., Allison, D. B., and Faith, M. S. (2000). Am. J. Public Health 90(2), 251–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Williamson, D. A. and O'Neil, P. M. (1998). Obesity and quality of life. In: Bray, G. and Bouchard, C. (eds.), Handbook of obesity: evaluation and treatment. Marcel Dekker: New York.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Choban, P. S., Onyejekwe, J., Burge, J. C., and Flancbaum, L. (1999). J. Am. Coll. Surg. 188(5), 491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pennington Biomedical Research CenterBaton Rouge

Personalised recommendations