Advertisement

Endocrine

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 211–214 | Cite as

Effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on insulin resistance

  • Kenan SaglamEmail author
  • Zülfikar Polat
  • M. Ilker Yilmaz
  • Mustafa Gulec
  • Seda B. Akinci
Article

Abstract

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) protects women from the risk of cardiovascular system disease, osteoporosis, and dementia. There are conflicting reports about the effects of HRT on insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HRT on insulin resistance with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique, the most sensitive technique measuring insulin resistance. Conjugated estrogen (0.625 mg/d) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg/d) were given to 15 postmenopausal women with insulin resistance. After 3 mo of HRT, the M value (total glucose consumption) increased 28% (p<0.001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased 12.9% (p<0.044), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased 17% (p<0.009), total cholesterol decreased 9.1% (p<0.016), and serum insulin decreased 33% (p<0.022) compared to baseline values before HRT was started. No significant changes in glucose, C-peptide, and triglyceride levels were observed. Whereas there were no differences regarding glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the insulin-resistant (n=15) and non-insulin-resistant women (n=24) (p>0.05), there were significant differences in M value, insulin, and C-peptide levels between these groups (p<0.05). We believe that HRT with this combination may protect postmenopausal women from coronary artery disease (CAD) through its beneficial effects on insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and lipid levels, which are considered to be important factors in CAD pathogenesis.

Key Words

Insulin resistance hormone replacement postmenopausal women 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Knopp, R. H. (1998). Obstetr. Gynecol. 72, 235–301.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Manolio, T. A. and Harlan, W. R. (1993). Br. Heart J. 69, 1,2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ronnemea, T., Ronnemea, E., and Puukka, P. (1996). Diabetes Care 19, 1229–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sack, M. N., Rader, D. J., and Cannon, R. O. (1994). Lancet 343, 269,270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersson, B. (2000). Drugs Aging 17(5), 399–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bush, T. L., Barett-Connor, E., and Cowan, L. B. (1992). Circulation 75, 1102–1109.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stevanson, J. C., Crook, D. C., and Godsland, I. F. (1994). Drugs 47, 35–41.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim, J. C., Jang, H. C., and Cho, D. H. (1994). Arterioscler. Thromb. 14, 275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., and Willett, W. C. (1996). N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 756–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, Y. D., Chen, B., and Beauregard, J. (1996). Circulation 94, 2901–2908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stevenson, J. C., Crook, D., and Godsland, I. F. (1993). Atherosclerosis 93, 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilligan, D. M., Quyyumi, A. A., and Camon, R. O. (1994). Circulation 89, 2545–2551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fineberg, S. E. (2000). Drugs Aging 17(6), 453–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lindheim, S. R., Natelovitz, M., and Feldman, E. B. (1994). Obstet. Gynecol. 83(2), 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Eye Disease Care—Control Study Group. (1996). Arch. Ophtholmot. 114, 545.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sites, C. K., Brochu, M., Tchernof, A., and Poehlman, E. T. (2001). Metabolism 50(7), 835–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Fronzo, R. A. (1992). Diabetologica 33, 387–389.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Starke, A. A. R. (1992). J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 20(Suppl. 11), 1–21.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garvey, W. T. and Birnbaum, M. J. (1993). Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 7, 785–873.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hargreaver, A. D., Logan, R. L., and Elton, R. A. (1992). Atherosclerosis 94, 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Psaty, B. M., Hackbert, S. R., and Atkins, D. (1994). Arch. Intern. Med. 154, 1333–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lip, G. Y., Beevers, M., Churchill, D., and Beevers, D. G. (1994). J. Hum. Hypertens. 8, 491–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vehkavaara, S., Westerbacka, J., and Hakala-Ala-Pietila, T. (2000). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85(12), 4663–4670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kawecka-Jaszcz, K., Czarnecka, D., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Olszanecka, A., and Zdzienicka, A. (2002). Blood Press. 11(1), 28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grover-Paez, F., Martinez-Abundis, E., and Gonzalez-Ortiz, M. (2001). Rev. Med. Chil. 129(9), 989–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenan Saglam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zülfikar Polat
    • 1
  • M. Ilker Yilmaz
    • 1
  • Mustafa Gulec
    • 1
  • Seda B. Akinci
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineGülhane Military Medical AcademyEtlik-AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and ReanimationHacettepe UniversityEtlik-AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations