Advertisement

Endocrine

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 35–43 | Cite as

Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor ligands

Focus on reproductive system
  • Emanuela Arvat
  • Laura Gianotti
  • Roberta Giordano
  • Fabio Broglio
  • Mauro Maccario
  • Fabio Lanfranco
  • Giampiero Muccioli
  • Mauro Papotti
  • Andrea Grazian
  • Ezio GhigoEmail author
  • Romano Deghenghi
Article

Abstract

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the most important hypothalamic neurohormones controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion. Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also play an important role in the control of GH secretion, mainly acting via modulation of GHRH and somatostatin. In the past two decades, particular attention has been given to a new family of substances showing a strong GH-releasing effect: GH secretagogues (GHSs). GHSs increase GH secretion in a dose-and age-related manner after iv and even oral administration. The endocrine effects of GHSs, are not fully specific for GH; they show, in fact, prolactin- (PRL), adenocorticotropic hormone- and cortisol-releasing effects. Specific GHS receptors are present in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, where they mediate several extraendocrine effects of GHSs. The isolation of these “orphan” receptors suggested the existence of an endogenous GHS-like ligand that could be represented by a recently discovered gastric peptide, named ghrelin. The interaction between GHSs and GHRH at the central level and in the pituitary gland, but not at peripheral level, has clearly been shown. Because GHRH and GHS receptors share the same localization in some peripheral tissues, they may have some interactions even at this level.

Key Words

Growth hormone-releasing hormone growth hormone secretagogues prolactin adenocorticotropic hormone cortisol central nervous system 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Frohman, L. A. and Jansson, J. O. (1986). Endocr. Rev. 7, 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Muller, E. E. and Nisticò, G. (1989). In: Brain messengers and the pituitary. Muller, E. E. and Nisticò, G. (eds.). Academic: San Siego.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Casanueva, F. F. (1992). In: Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America, Melmed, S. (ed.). Saunders: Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghigo, E. (1992). In: Regulation of growth hormone and somatic growth. Dela Cruz (ed.). Elsevier Science: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tannenbaum, G. S. (1993). J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 6, 273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brar, A. K., Brinster, R. L., and Frohman, L. A. (1989). Endocrinology 125, 801–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bagnato, A., Moretti, C., Ohnishi, J., Frajese, G., and Catt, K. J. (1982). Endocrinology 130, 1097–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baird, A., Wehrenberg, W. B., Bohlen, P., and Ling, N. (1985). Endocrinology 117, 1598–1601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bruhn, T. O., Mason, R. T., and Vale, W. (1985). Endocrinology 117, 1710–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thorner, M. O., Vance, M. L., Evans, W. S., Ho, K., Rogol, A. D., Blizzard, R. M., Furlanetto, R., Rivier, J., and Vale, W. (1986). Acta Endocrinol (Suppl.) (Copenh.). 276, 34–40.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berry, S. A. and Pescovitz, O. H. (1988). Endocrinology 123, 661–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsubara, S., Sato, M., Mizobuchi, M., Niimi, M., and Takahara, J. (1995). Endocrinology 136(9), 4147–4150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moretti, C., Fabbri, A., Gnessi, L., Forni, L., Fraioli, F., and Frajese, G. (1989). In: Reproductive Medicine: Medical Therapy. Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Reproductive Medicine, Frajese, G., Steinberg, F., and Rodriguez-Rigau, L. J. (eds.), Elsevier: New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moretti, C., Fabbri, A., Gnessi, L., Bonifacio, V., Bolotti, M., Arizzi, M., Nazzicone, Q., and Spera, G. (1990). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 13, 301–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    ciampani, T., Fabbri, A., Isidori, A., and Dufau, M. L. (1992). Endocrinology 131, 2785–2792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fabbri, A., Ciocca, D. R., Ciampani, R., Wang, J., and Dufau, M. L. (1995). Endocrinology 136, 2303–2308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Artini, P. G., de Micheroux, A. A., and D'Ambrogio, G. (1996). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 19, 763–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bowers, C. Y., Veeraragavan, K., and Sethumadhavan, K. (1993). In: Growth hormone II, basic and clinical aspects. Bercu, B. B. and Walker, R. F. (eds.), Springer-Verlag: New York. 203–222.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deghenghi, R. (1993). In: Growth hormone secretagogues. Bercu, B. and Walker, R. (eds.). Serono Symposia: New York.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Korbonits, M. and Grossman, A. B. (1995). Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 6, 43–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Muccioli, G., and Camanni, F. (1997). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 136, 445–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith, R. G., Van der Ploeg, L. X. T., Howard, A. D., Feighner, S. D., Cheng, K., Hickey, G. J., Wyvratt, M. J., Fisher, M. H., Nargund, R. P., and Patchett, A. A. (1997). Endocr. Rev. 18, 621–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., and Camanni, F. (1998). Growth Horm. IGF Res. 8, 145–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Locke, W., Kirgis, H. D., Bowers, C. Y., and Abdo, A. A. (1995). Life Sci. 56, 1347–1352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frieboes, R. M., Murck, H., Maier, P., Schier, T., Holsboer, F., and Steiger, A. (1995). Neuroendocrinology 61, 584–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Torsello, A., Luoni, M., Schweiger, F., Grilli, R., Guidi, M., Bresciani, E., Deghenghi, R., Muller, E., and Locatelli, V. (1998). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 360, 123–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeGennaro Colonna, V., Rossoni, G., Bernareggi, M., Muller, E. E., and Berti, F. (1997). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 334, 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berti, F., Muller, E., De Gennaro Colonna, V., and Rossoni, G. (1998), Growth Horm. IGF Res. 8, 149–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bisi, G., Podio, V., Valetto, M. R., Broglio, F., Bertuccio, G., Del Rio, G., Arvat, E., Boghen, M. F., Deghenghi, R., Muccioli, G., Ong, H., and Ghigo, E. (1999). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 22, 266–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cassoni, P., Papotti, M., Catapano, F., Ghé, C., Deghenghi, R., Ghigo, E., and Muccioli, G. (2000). J. Endocrinol. 165, 139–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Muccioli, G., Broglio, F., Valetto, M., Ghè, C., Catapano, F., Graziani, A., Papotti, M., Bisi, G., Deghenghi, R., and Ghigo, E. (2000). Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) 61(1), 27–31.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Howard, A. D., Feighner, S. D., Cully, D. F., et al. (1996). Science 273, 974–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ong, H., McNicoll, N., Escher, E., Collu, R., Deghenghi, R., Locatelli, V., Ghigo, E., Muccioli, G., Boghen, M., and Nillson, M. H. L. (1998). Endocrinology 139, 432–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bodart, V., Bouchard, J. F., McNicoll, N., Escher, E., Carriere, P., Ghigo, E., Sejlitz, T., Sirois, M. G., Lamontagne, D., and Ong, H. (1999). Circ. Res. 85, 796–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kojima, M., Hosada, H., Data, Y., Nakazato, M., Matsuo, H., and Kankawa, K. (1999). Nature 402, 656–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frohman, L. A., Bernardis, L. L., and Kant, K. J. (1969). Science 162, 580–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martin, J. B. (1972). Endocrinology 91, 107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bloch, B., Brazeau, P., Ling, N., Bohlen, P., Esch, F., Wehrenberg, W. B., Benoit, R., Bloom, F., and Guillemin, R. (1983). Nature 301, 607–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brazeau, P., Bloom, F., and Ling, N. (1983). Neurosci. Lett. 37, 23–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jacobowitz, D. M., Schulte, H., Chrousos, G. P., and Loriaux, D. L. (1983). Peptides 4, 521–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mayo, K. E., Cerelli, G. M., Lebo, R. V., Bruce, B. D., Reosenfeld, M. G., and Evans, R. M. (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 62, 63–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bresson, J. L., Clacequin, M. C., Fellman, D., and Bugnon, C. (1984). Neuroendocrinology 39, 68–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carlson, H. E., Mariz, I. K., and Daughday, W. H. (1974). Endocrinology 94, 1709–1711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stachura, M. E. (1976). Endocrinology 99, 678–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tannenbaum, G. S., Epelbaum, J., Colle, E., Brazeau, P., and Martin, J. B. (1978). Endocrinology 102, 1909–1912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tannenbaum, G. S. and Ling, N. (1984). Endocrinology 115, 1952–1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hindmarsch, P. C., Brain, C. E., Robinson, I. C. A. F., Matthews, D. R., and Brook, C. G. D. (1991). Clin. Endocrinol. 35, 353–360.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Plotsky, P. M. and Vale, W. (1985). Science 230, 461–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mazza, E., Ghigo, E., Goffi, S., Procopio, M., Imperiale, E., Arvat, E., Bellone, J., Boghen, M. F., Muller, E. E., and Camanni, F. (1989). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 12, 795–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Corpas, E., Hartman, S. M., and Blackman, M. R. (1993). Endocr. Rev. 16, 686–715.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Gianotti, L., Ramunni, J., Di Vito, L., Maccagno, B., Grottoli, S., and Camanni, F. (1996). J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 9, 271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ceda, G. P., Valenti, G., Butturini, U., Hoffman, A. R. (1986). Endocrinology 118, 2109–2114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coiro, V., Volpi, R., Cavazzini, U., Bertoni, P., Corradi, A., and Bianconi, L. (1991). J. Gerontol., 46, M155-M158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Muller, E. E., Cella, S. G., Parenti, M., Deghenghi, R., Locatelli, V., and De Gennaro Colonna, V. (1995). Horm Res. 43, 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Arvat, E., Ceda, G. P., Di Vito, L., Ramunni, J., Gianotti, L., Broglio, F., Deghenghi, R., and Ghigo, E. (1998). Pituitary 1, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Muller, E. E., De Gennaro Colonna, V., Cella, S. G., Torsello, A., Ghigo, E., Loche, S., Arce, V., Cocchi, D., and Locatelli, V. (1991). In: Molecular and clinical advances in pituitary disorders. Melmed, S. and Robbins, R. (eds.). Blackwell Scientific. Oxford.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Berelowitz, M., Szabo, M., Frohman, L. A., Firestone, S., Chu, L., and Hintz, R. L. (1981). Science 212, 1279–1288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ceda, G. P. (1995). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 18, 734–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ho, K. K. and Weissberger, A. J. (1990). Horm. Res. 33, 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wehrenberg, W. B. and Giustina, A. (1992). Endocr. Rev. 13, 299–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vedlhuis, J. D. (1996). J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 9, 237–253.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Gianotti, L., Maccario, M., and Camanni, F. (1999). In: The endocrine response to acute illness, Jenkins, R. C. and Ross, R. J. M. (eds.), Front. Horm. Res. Karger: Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lang, I., Schernthaner, G., Pietsschman, P., Kurz, R., Stephenson, J. M., and Templ, H. (1987). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65, 535–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gelato, M. C., Pescovitz, D. H., Cassorla, F., Loriaux, D. L., and Merriam, G. R. (1984). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59, 197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Smals, A. E. M., Pieters, G. F. F. M., Smals, A. G. H., Benraad, T. J., van Laafhoven, J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. C. (1986). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62, 336–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vaccarino, F. J., Bloom, F. E., Rivier, J., Vale, W., and Koob, G. F. (1985). Nature 314, 167–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Berry, S. A. and Pescovitz, O. H. (1990). Endocrinology 127, 1404–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pescovitz, O. H., Berry, S. A., Laudon, M., Ben-Jonathan, N., Martin-Myers, A., Hsu, S., Lambros, T. J., and Felix, A. M. (1990). Endocrinology 127, 2336–2342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Srivastava, C. H., Collard, M. W., Rothrock, J. K., Peredo, M. J., Berry, S. A., and Pescovitz, O. H. (1993). Endocrinology 133, 83–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Srivastava, C. H., Monts, B. S., Rothrock, J. K., Peredo, M. J., and Pescovitz, O. H. (1995). Endocrinology 136, 1502–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Breyer, P. R., Rothrock, J. K., Beaudry, N., and Pescovitz, O. H. (1996). Endocrinology 137(5), 2159–2162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berry, S. A., Srivastava, C. H., Rubin, L. R., Phipps, W. R., and Pescovitz, O. H. (1992). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75, 281–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Srivastava, C. H., Breyer, P. R., Rothrock, J. K., Peredo, M. J., and Pescovitz, O. H. (1993) Endocrinology 133(3), 1478–1481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moretti, C., Fabbri, A., Gnessi, L., Bolotti, M., Giovenco, P., and Frajese, G. (1989). Endocrinology 124, 335–339.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Spiteri-Grech, J. and Nieschlag, E. (1992). Horm. Res. 38(1), 22–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sasaki, A. and Yoshinaga, K. (1989). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68, 996–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Oh, S. S., Khardori, R., Kopplin, D. K., and Amador, A. G. (1995). Rev. Esp. Fisiol. 51(4), 187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gerendai, I., Csaba, Z., and Csernus, V. (1996). Life Sci. 59(10), 859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vasankari, T., Kujala, U., Taimela, S., Torma, A., Irjala, K., and Huhtaniemi, I. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80(11), 3298–3303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moretti, C., Bagnato, A., Solan, N., Fratese, G., and Catt, K. J. (1990). Endocrinology 127, 2117–2126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bagnato, A., Moretti, C., Fratese, G., and Catt, K. J. (1991). Endocrinology 128, 2889–2894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McIntyre, H. D., Marechal, D. J., Deby, G. P., Mathieu, A. G., Hezee-Hagelstein, M., and Franchimont, P. P. (1992). Acta Endocrinol. (copenh.). 126(6), 553–558.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Andreani, C. L., Lazzarin, N., Pierro, E., Lanzone, A., and Mancuso, S. (1995). Hum. Reprod. 10(8), 1968–1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Holst, N., Jacobsen, M. B., Haug, E., Tanbo, T., and Abyholm, T. (1995). Hum. Reprod. 10(6), 1363–1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mimuro, T., Smith, H., Iwashita, M., and Illingworth, P. J. (1998). Hum. Reprod. 13(1), 150–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bowers, C. Y., Chang, J., Momany, F., and Folkers, K. (1977). In: Molecular endocrinology. Macintyne, I. (ed.). Elsevier/North Holland Biochemical: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Raun, K., Hansen, B. S., Johansen, N. L., Thogersen, H., Madsen, K., Ankersen, M., and Andersen, P. H. (1998). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 139, 552–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Arvat, E., Di Vito, L., Lanfranco, F., Broglio, F., Giordano, R., Benso, A., Muccioli, G. P., Deghenghi, R., and Ghigo, E. (1999). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 22, 91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Balthasar, N., Carmignac, D. F., Mathers, K., Bennet, P. A., Le Tissier, P. R., Magoulas, C., and Robinson, I. C. A. F. (2000). 82nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 645).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kangawa, K., Kojima, M., and Matsuo, H. (2000). 82nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 172).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nakazato, M., Date, Y., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K. and Matsukura, S. (2000). 82nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 692).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mori, K., Yoshimoto, A., Hosoda, K., Sawai, K., Yokoi, H., Yoshiota, T., Nagae, T., Fujinaga, Y., Makino, H., Suganami, T., Yahata, K., Mukoyama, M., Sugawara, A., Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., and Nakao, K. (2000), Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 1124).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Iwakura, H., Hosoda, K., Son, C., Sagawa, N., Itoh, H., Yura, S., Matsuda, J., Akamizu, T., Fujii, S., Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., and Nakao, K. (2000). Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 1125).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Komatsu, I., Yasoda, A., Sakuma, Y., Miura, A., Tanaka, K., Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Hosoda, K., and Nakao, K. (2000). Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Toronto, June 2000 (abstract 1126).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Korbonitz, M., Ciccarelli, E., Ghigo, E., and Grossman, A. B. (1999). Growth Horm. IGF Res. 9, 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McKee, K. K., Tan, C. P., Palyha, O. C., Liu, J., Feighner, S. D., Hreniuk, D. L., Smith, R. G., Howard, A. D., and Van der Ploeg, L. H. T. (1997). Genomics 46, 426–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tan, C. P., McKee, K. K., Qingyun, L., Palyha, O. C., Feighner, S. D., Hreniuk, D. L., Smith, R. G., and Howard, A. D. (1998). Genomics 52, 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bartolotta, E., Bellone, J., Aimaretti, G., Arvat, E., Benso, L., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1997). J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 10, 491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shimon, I., Yan, X., and Melmed, S. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 174–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Arvat, E., Giordano, R., Gianotti, L., Broglio, F., Muccioli, G. P., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1999). In: Sex-steroid interactions with growth hormone. Veldhuis, J. D. and Giustina, A. (eds.). Springer-Verlag: Serono Symposia USA.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kamegai, J., Wakabayashi, I., Kineman, R. D., and Frohman, L. A. (1999). J. Neuroendocrinol. 11, 299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tamura, H., Kamegai, J., Sugihara, H., Kineman, R. D., Frohman, L. A., and Wakabayashi, I. (2000). J. Neuroendocrinol. 12, 481–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bennet, P. A., Thomas, G. B., Howard, A. D., Feighner, S. D., van der Ploeg, L. H. T., Smith, R. G., Robinson, I. C. A. F. (1997). Endocrinology 138, 4552–4557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Guan, X., Yu, H., Palyha, O. C., McKee, K. K., Feighner, S. D., Sirinathsinghji, D. J. S., Smith, R. G., Van der Ploeg, L. H. T., and Howard, A. D. (1997). Mol. Brain Res. 48, 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Graziani, A., Fubini, A., Filigheddu, N., Baldanzi, G. L., Pucci, A., Ong, H., Muccioli, G., Bussolino, F., and Ghigo, E. (1999). J. Endocrinol. Invest. 22(Suppl. 4), 16.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Papotti, M., Ghé, C., Cassoni, P., Catapano, F., Deghenghi, R., Ghigo, E., and Muccioli, G. (2000). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85, 3803–3707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pombo, M., Barreiro, J., Penalva, A., Peino, R., Dieguez, C., and Casanueva, F. F. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 3180–3184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Popovic, V., Damjanovic, S., Micic, D., Djurovic, M., Dieguez, C., and Casanueva, F. F. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 942–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hickey, G. J., Drisko, J., Faidley, T., Chang, C., Anderson, L., Nicolich, S., McGuire, L., Rickes, E., Krupe, D., Feeney, W., Friscino, B., Cunningham, P., Frazier, E., Chen, H., Leroque, P., and Smith, R. G. (1996). J. Endocrinol. 148, 371–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pandya, N., De Mott-Friberg, R., Bowers, C. Y., Barkan, A. L., and Jaffe, C. A. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 1186–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Maheshwari, H. G., Rahim, A., Shalet, S. M., and Baumann, G. (1999). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84, 956–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Arvat, E., Broglio, F., Giordano, R., Muccioli, G., Maccario, M., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1999). In: Growth hormone secretagogues. Ghigo, E., Boghen, M., Casanueva, F. F., and Dieguez, C. (eds.), Elsevier Science. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Massoud, A. F., Hindmarsh, P. C., and Brook, C. G. (1995). Clin. Endocrinol. 43, 617–621.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Arvat, E., Di Vito, L., Gianotti, L., Ramunni, J., Boghen, M. F., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1997). Metabolism 46, 83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ghigo, E., Gianotti, L., Arvat, E., Ramunni, J., Valetto, M. R., Broglio, F., Rolla, M., Cavagnini, F., Muller, E. E. (1999). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arvat, E., Gianotti, L., Grottoli, S., Imbimbo, B. P., Lenaerts, V., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79, 1440–1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chapman, I. M., Bach, M. A., Van Cauter, E., Farmer, M., Krupa, D., Taylor, A. M., Schilling, L. M., Cole, K. Y., Skiles, E. H., Pezzoli, S. S., Hartman, M. L., Veldhuis, J. D., Gormley, G. J., and Thomer, M. O. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 4249–4257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Micic, D., Popovich, V., Doknic, M., et al. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 2569–2572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bellone, J., Aimaretti, G., Bartolotta, E., Benso, L., Imbimbo, B. P., Lenhaerts, V., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 1090–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Loche, S., Colao, A., Cappa, M., Bellone, J., Aimaretti, G., Farello, G., Faedda, A., Lombardi, G., Deghenghi, R., and Ghigo, E. (1997) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 861–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Arvat, E., Gianotti, L., Broglio, F., Maccagno, B., Bertagna, A., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1997). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 136, 483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Korbonits, M., Trainer, P. J., and Besser, G. M. (1995). Clin. Endocrinol. 43, 365–371.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Arvat, E., Maccagno, B., Ramunni, J., Di Vito, L., Broglio, F., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1997). Neuroendocrinology 66, 432–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Arvat, E., Ramunni, J., Bellone, J., Di Vito, L., Baffoni, C., Broglio, F., Deghenghi, R., Bartolotta, E., and Ghigo, E. (1997). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 137, 635–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C., and McEwen, B. (1986). Endocr. Rev. 284–301.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Elias, K. A., Ingle, G. S., Burnier, J. P., Hammonds, R. G., McDowell, R. S., Rawson, T. E., Somers, T. C., Stanley, M. S., and Cronin, M. J. (1995). Endocrinology 136, 5694–5699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Korbonits, M., Kaltsas, G., Perry, L. A., Putignano, P., Grossman, A. B., Besser, G. M., and Trainer, P. J. (1999). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84, 2489–2495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dickson, S. L. and Luckman, S. M. (1997). Endocrinology 138, 771–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Arvat, E., Maccagno, B., Ramunni, J., Di Vito, L., Gianotti, L., Broglio, F., Benso, A., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1998). Neuroendocrinology 67, 310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Arvat, E., Ramunni, J., Maccagno, B., Giordano, R., Broglio, F., Deghenghi, R., Boscaro, M., and Ghigo, E. (1999). Neuroendocrinology 70, 200–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Ramunni, J., Colao, A., Gianotti, L., Deghenghi, R., Lombardi, G., and Camanni, F. (1997). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2439–2444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    De Keyzer, Y., Lenne, F., and Bertagna, X. (1997). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 137, 715–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jansson, J. O., Svensson, J., Bengtsson, B. A., Frohman, L. A., Ahlman, H., Wangberg, B., Nilsson, O., and Nilsson, M. (1998). Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.). 48, 243–250.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Copinschi, G., Leproult, R., Van Onderbergen, A., Caufriez, A., Cole, K. Y., Schilling, L. M., Mendel, C. M., De Lepeleire, I., Bolognese, J. A., and Van Cauter, E. (1997). Neuroendocrinology 66, 278–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Svensson, J., Lonn, L., Jansson, J. O., Murphy, G., Wyss, D., Krupa, D., Cerchio, K., Polvino, W., Gertz, B., Boseaus, I., Sjostrom, L., and Bengtsson, B. A. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 362–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuela Arvat
    • 5
  • Laura Gianotti
    • 5
  • Roberta Giordano
    • 5
  • Fabio Broglio
    • 5
  • Mauro Maccario
    • 5
  • Fabio Lanfranco
    • 5
  • Giampiero Muccioli
    • 1
  • Mauro Papotti
    • 2
  • Andrea Grazian
    • 3
  • Ezio Ghigo
    • 5
    Email author
  • Romano Deghenghi
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Department of PharmacologyUniversity of TurinItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of TurinItaly
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and BiochemistryUniversity of TurinItaly
  4. 4.EuropeptideArgenteuilFrance
  5. 5.Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of TurinTorinoItaly

Personalised recommendations