, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

DHEA and the skeleton (through the ages)

  • Catherine M. GordonEmail author
  • Julie Glowacki
  • Meryl S. LeBoff


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroids in the human circulation, although their exact biological significance is not completely understood. DHEA(S) levels are high in fetal life, decrease after birth, and show a marked pubertal increase to a maximal level during young adulthood. In healthy adults, DHEAS levels decline to 10–20% of peak levels by age 70 yr. This review summarizes information concerning the role of DHEA in skeletal physiology, including modulation of the skeletal insulin-like growth factor regulatory system, and its effects on secretion of proresorptive cytokines. The pattern of secretion of DHEA throughout the life cycle is discussed, as well as its potential usefulness in specific disease states as an agent with anabolic and antiosteolyic effects on bone.

Key Words

DHEA osteoporosis aging insulin-like growth factors cytokines 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Frisch, R. E. (1990). Prog. Reprod Biol. Med. 14, 1–26.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meikle, A. W., Daynes, R. A., and Araneo, B. A. L (1991). Endocr. Metab. Clin. North Am. 20, 381–400.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albrecht, E. D. and Pepe, G. J. (1990). Endocr. Rev. 11, 124–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sklar, C. A., Kaplan, S. A., and Grumback, M. M. (1980). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51, 548–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Apter, D., Pakarinen, A., Hammond, G. L., and Vihko, R. (1979). Acta. Paediatr. Scand. 68, 599–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Orentreich, N., Brind, J. L., Rizer, R. L., and Vogelman, J. H. (1984). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59, 551–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herbert, J. (1995). Lancet 345, 1193–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis, S. R. and Burger, H. G. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 2759–2763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Labrie, F., Diamond, R., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Belanger, A., and Candas, B. (1997). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2396–2402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Albright, F. (1947). Ann. Intern. Med. 27, 861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barrett-Connor, E., Shaw, K., and Yen, S. S. C. (1986). N. Engl. J. Med. 315, 1519–1524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belanger, A., Candas, B., Dupont, A., Cusan, L., Diamond, P., Gomez, J. L., and Labrie, F. (1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab 79, 1086–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suzuki, T., Suzuki, N., Engelman, E. G., Mizushima, Y., and Sakane, T. (1995). Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99, 251–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Turner, R. T., Lifrak, E. T., Beckner, M., Wakley, G. K., Hannon, K. S., and Parker, L. N. (1990). Am. J. Physiol. 258, E673-E677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daynes, R. A., Araneo, B. A., Ershler, W. B., Maoloney, C., Li, G. Z., and Ryu, S. Y. (1993). J. Immunol. 150, 5219–5230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Araneo, B. A., Shelby, J., Li, G. Z., Ku, W., and Daynes, R. A. (1993). Arch. Surg. 128, 318–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daynes, R. A. and Araneo, B. A. (1992). J. Immunother. 12, 174–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berr, C., Lafont, S., Debuire, B., Dartignes, J. F., and Baulieu, E. E. (1996). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 13,410–13,415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Boschi, F., Bernardi, M., Pratelli, L., Pizzoferrato, A., and Gasbarrini, G. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 1173–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cawood, E. H. and Bancroft, J. (1996). Psychol. Med. 26, 925–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baulieu E. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 3147–3151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Friess, E., Trachsel, L., Gludner, J., Schier, T., Steiger, A., and Holsboer, F. (1995). Am. J. Physiol. 268, E107-E113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morales, A. J., Nolan, J. J., Nelson, J. C., and Yen, S. S. C. (1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78, 1360–1367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buster, J. E., Casson, P. R., Straughn, A. B., Dale, D., Umstot, E. S., Chiamori, N., and Abraham, G. E. (1992). Am. J. Obster. Gynecol. 166, 1163–1170.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Longcope, C. (1995). Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 774, 143–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Falany, C. N., Comer, K. A., Dooley, T. P., and Glatt, H. (1995). Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 774, 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Neville, A. M. and O'Hare, M. J. (1982). In: The human adrenal cortex: pathology and biology—an integrated approach. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mortola, J. F. and Yen, S. S. C. (1990). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71, 696–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Labrie, F., Belanger, A., Simard, J., Luu-The, V., and Labrie, C. (1995). Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 774, 16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Labrie, F. (1991). Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 78, C113-C118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Labrie, F., Belanger, A., Cusan, L., and Candas, B. (1997). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2403–2409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Belanger, A., Brochu, M., and Cliché, J. (1986). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62, 812–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moghissi, E., Ablam, F., and Horton, R. (1984). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59, 417–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grodin, J. N., Siiteri, P. K., and MacDonald, P. C. (1973). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36, 207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frisch, R. E., Canick, J. A., and Tulchinsky, D. (1980). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51, 394–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Simpson, E. R. and Mendelson, C. R. (1990). In: Adipose tissue and reproduction. Frisch, R. E. (ed.). Karger, Switzerland: Basel.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sandler, R. B., Slemenda, C. W., LaPorte, R. E., Cauley, J. A., Schramm, M. M., Barresi, M. L., and Kriska, A. M. (1985). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42, 270–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Matkovic, V. (1992). J. Intern. Med. 231, 151–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bonjour, J. P., Theintz, G., Buchs, B., Slosman, D., and Rizzoli, R. (1991). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73, 555–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mauras, N., Haymond, M. W., Darmaun, D., Vieira, N. E., Abrams, S. A., and Yergey, A. L. (1994). J. Clin. Invest. 93, 1014–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dagogo-Jack, S., Al-Ali, N., and Qurttom, M. (1997). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2821–2825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buchanan, J. R., Myers, C., Llyod, T., Leuenberger, P., and Demers, L. M. (1988). J. Bone Miner. Res. 3, 673–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mazess, R. B. (1982). Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 165, 239–252.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Riggs, B. L., Khosla, S., and Melton, L. J. III (1998). J. Bone Miner. Res. 13, 763–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cummings, S. R., Browner, W. S., Bauer, D. B., Stone, K., Ensrud, K., Jama, S., and Ettinger, B. (1998). N. Engl. J. Med. 339, 733–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Greendale, G. A., Edelstein, S., and Barrett-Connor, E. (1997). J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 1833–1843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bidlingmaier, R., Dorr, H. G., Eisenmenger, W., Kuhnle, U., and Knorr, D. (1986). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62, 331–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Labrie, F., Belanger, A., Dupont, A., Luu-The, V., Simard, J., and Labrie, C. (1993). Clin. Invest. Med. 16, 475–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Veldhuis, J. D., Liem, A. Y., South, S., Weltman, A., Weltman, J., Clemmons, D. A., Abbott, R., Mulligan, T., Johnson, M. L. Pincus, S., Straume, M., and Iranmanesh, A. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 3209–3222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pfeilschifter, J., Scheodt-Nave, C., Leidig-Bruckner, G., Woitge, H. W., Blum, W. F., Wuster, C., Haack, D., and Ziegler, R. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 2534–2540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Finkelstein, J. S., Neer, R. M., Biller, B. M. K., Crawford, J. D., and Klibanski, A. (1992). N. Engl. J. Med. 326, 600–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griffin, J. E. (1992). N. Engl. J. Med. 326, 611–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Quigley, C. A., De Bellis, A., Marschke, K. B., El-Awady, M. K., Wilson, E. M., and French, F. S. (1995). Endocrine Rev. 16, 271–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Munoz-Torres, M., Jodar, E., Quesada, M., and Escobar-Jiminez, F. (1995). Calcif. Tissue Int. 57, 94–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    MacLean, H. E., Chu, S., Joske, F., Warne, G. L., and Zajac, J. D. (1995). Biochem. Mol. Med. 55, 31–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vanderschueren, D., Van Herck, E., Suiker, A. M. H., Visser, W. J. Schot, L. P. C., Chung K., Lucas, R. S., Einhorn, T. A., and Bouillon, R. (1993). J. Bone Miner. Res. 8, 801–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith, E. P., Boyd, J., Frank, G. R., Takahashi, H., Cohen, R. M., Specker, B., Williams, T. C., LuBahn, D. B., and Korach, K. S. (1994). N. Engl. J. Med. 331, 1056–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Korach, K. S. (1994). Science 266, 1524–1527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Conte, F. A., Grumbach, M. M., Ito, Y., Fisher, C. R., and Simpson, E. R. (1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78, 1287–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morishima, A., Grumbach, M. M., Simpson, E. R., Fisher, C., and Qin, K. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 3689–3698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bachrach, B. E. and Smith, E. P. (1996). Endocrinologist 6, 362–368.Google Scholar
  62. 61a.
    LeBoff, M. S. and Glowacki, J. (1999). In: The aging skeleton. Rosen, C., Glowackli, J., and Bilezikian, J. (eds.) Academic Press: San Diego.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Rosen, C. J., Donahue, L. R., and Hunter, S. J. (1994). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 206, 83–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Grinspoon, S., Baum, H., Lee, K., Anderson, E., Herzog, D., and Klibanski, A. (1996). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 3864–3870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Haden, S. T., Hurwitz, S., Glowacki, J., Rosen, C. J., and Leboff, M. S. (1998). Bone 23, S620.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Gordon, C. M., Grace, E., Emans, S. J., Goodman, E., Crawford, M. H., and LeBoff, M. S. (1999). J. Bone Miner. Res. 14, 136–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Barrett-Connor, E. and Goodman-Gruen, D. (1998). J. Bone Miner. Res. 13, 1343–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Mohan, S. and Baylink, D. J. (1991). Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 263, 30–48.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Boonen, S., Lesaffre, E., Dequeker, J., Aerssens, J., Nijs, J., Pelemans, W., and Bouillon, R. (1996). J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 44, 1301–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Bing-You, R. G., Denis, M. C., and Rosen, C. J. (1993). Calcif. Tissue Int. 52, 183–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Gray, T. K., Mohan, S., Linkhart, T. A., and Baylink, D. J. (1989). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 158, 407–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    McCarthy, T. L., Centrella, M., and Canalis, E. (1989). Endocrinology 124, 1247–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Ashton, W. S., Degnan, B. M., Daniel, A., and Francis, G. L. (1995). Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 25, 381–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Rosen, C. J., Verault D., Steffens, C., Cheleuitte, D., and Glowacki, J. (1997). Endocrine 7, 77–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Goldstein, S., Moerman, E. J., Jose, R. A., and Baxter, R. C. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9680–9684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Puche, R. C. and Romano, M. C. (1969). Calcif. Tissue Res. 11, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Scheven, B. A. and Milne, J. S. (1998). Life Sci. 62, 59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Kasperk, C. H., Wakley, G. K., Hierl, T., and Ziegler, R. (1997). J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 464–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Chiu, K. M., Keller, E. T., Crenshaw, T. D., and Gravenstein, S. (1999). Calcif. Tissue Int. 64, 527–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Yan, Z., Lee, G. Y., and Anderson, E. (1997). Biol. Reprod. 57, 1509–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Hofig, A., Simmen, F. A., Bazer, F. W., and Simmen, R. C. (1991). J. Endocrinol. 130, 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Christman, G. M., Randolph, J. F., Peegel, H., and Menon, K. M. (1991). Fertil. Steril. 55, 1099–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Manolagas, S. C. and Jilka, R. L. (1995). N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Wallach, S., Avioli, L. V., Feinblatt, J. D., and Carstens, J. H. Jr. (1993). Calcif. Tissue Int. 53, 293–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Pfeilschifter, J., Chenu, C., Bird, A., Mundy, G. R., and Roodman, G. D. (1989). J. Bone Miner. Res. 4, 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Bertolini, D. R., Nedwin, G. E., Bringman, T. S., Smith, D. D., and Mundy, G. R. (1986). Nature 319, 516–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Gowen, M., Wood, D. D., Ihrie, E. J., McGuire, M. K., and Russell, R. G. (1983). Nature 306, 378–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Stashenko, P., Obernesser, M. S., and Dewhirst, F. E. (1989). Immun. Invest. 18, 239–249.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Nguyen, L., Dewhirst, F. E., Hauschka, P. V., and Stashenko, P. (1991). Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 10, 15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Girasole, G., Passeri, G., Jilka, R. L., and Manolagas, S. C. (1994). J. Clin. Invest. 93, 1516–1524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Ohsaki, Y., Takahashi, S., Scarcez, T., Demulder, A., Nishihara, T., Williams, R., and Roodman, G. D. (1992). Endocrinology 131, 2229–2234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Path, G., Bornstein, S. R., Spath-Schwalbe, E., and Scherbaum, W. A. (1996). Endocrin. Res. 22, 867–873.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Jilka, R. L., Hangoc, G., Girasole, G., Passeri, G., Williams, D. C., Abrams, J. S., Boyce, B., Broxmeyer, H., and Manolagas, S. C. (1992). Science 257, 88–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Eriksen, E. F., Colvard, D. S., Berg, N. G., Graham M. L., Mann, K. G., Spelsberg, T. C., and Riggs, B. L. (1988). Science 241, 84–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Komm, B. S., Terpening, C. M., Benz, D. J., Graeme, K. A., Gallogas, A., Korc, M., Greene, G. L., O'Malley, B. W., and Hausler, M. R. (1988). Science 241, 81–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Horowitz, M. C. (1993). Science 260, 626–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Glowacki, J. (1995). Calcif. Tissue Int. 56S, 50–51.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Cheleuitte, D., Mizuno, S., and Glowacki, J. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 2043–2051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Ralston, S. H. (1994). J. Bone Miner. Res. 9, 883–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Kassem, M., Harris, S. A., Spelsberg, T. C., and Riggs, B. L. (1996). J. Bone Miner. Res. 11, 193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Rifas, L., Kenney, J. S., Marcelli, M., Pacifici, R., Cheng, S. L., Dawson, L. L., and Avioli, L. V. (1995). Endocrinology 136, 4056–4067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Hierl, T., Borcsok, I., Sommer, U., Ziegler, R., and Kasperk, C. (1998). Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 106, 324–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Gordon, C. M., Makhluf, H., Blahut, E., LeBoff, M. S., and Glowacki, J. (1999). 21st Annual Meeting, American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Glowacki, J., Yates, K., Lesieur-Brooks, A., Bleiberg, I., and Cheleuitte, D. (1997). J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, S337.Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Girasole, G., Jilka, R. L., Passeri, G., Boswell S., Boder, G., Williams, D. C., and Manolagas, S. C. (1992). J. Clin. Invest. 89, 883–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Bellido, T., Jilka, R. L., Boyce, B. F., Girasole, G., Broxmeyer, H., Dalrymple, S. A., Murray, R., and Manolagas, S. C. (1995). J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2886–2895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Yeh, J., Kohlmeier, L., LeBoff, M. S., Connolly, M., and Glowacki, J. (1994). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 205, 306–315.Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Bruder, J. M., Sobek, L., and Oettel, M. (1997). J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 62, 461–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    James, K., Premchand, N., Skibinska, A., Skibinski, G., Nicol, M., and Mason, J. I. (1997). Mech. Aging Dev. 93, 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Buchanan, J. R., Hospodar, P., Myers, C., Leuenberger, P., and Demers, L. M. (1988). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 67, 937–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Nimrod, A. and Ryan, K. J. (1975). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40, 367–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 110a.
    Labrie, F., Diamond, P., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Belanger, A., and Candas, B. (1997). J. Clin. Endo. Metab. 82, 3498–3505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Wild, R. A., Buchanan, J. R., Myers, C., and Demers, L. M. (1987). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 186, 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Nordin, B. E., Robertson, A., Seamark, R. F., Bridges, A., Philcox, J. C., Need, A. G., Horowitz, M., Morris, H. A., and Deam, S. (1985). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 60, 651–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Taelman, P., Kaufman, J. M., Janssens, X., and Vermeulen, A. (1989). Maturitas 11, 65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    Steinberg, K. K., Freni-Titulaer, L. W., DePuey, E. G., Miller, D. T., Sgoutas, D. S., Coralli, C. H., Phillips, D. L., Rogers, T. N., and Clark, R. V. (1989). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69, 533–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Barrett-Connor, E., Kritz-Silvertein, D., and Edelstein, S. L. (1993). Am. J. Epidemiol. 137, 201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Khorram, O., Vu, L., and Yen, S. S. (1997). J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 52 1–7.Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    Arlt, W., Justl, H. G., Callies, F., Reincke, M., Hubler, D., Oettel, M., Ernst, M., Schulte, H. M., and Allolio, B. (1998). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 1928–1934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    Oelkers, W. (1996). N. Engl. J. Med. 335, 1206–1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    Riedel, M., Wiese, A., Schurmeyer, T. H., and Brabant, G. (1993). Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. 101, 106–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    Devogelaer, J. P., Crabbe, J., and Nagant De Deuxchaisnes, C. (1987). BMJ 294, 798–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Rigotti, N. A., Neer, R. M., Skates, S. J., Herzog, D. B., and Nussbaum, S. R. (1991). JAMA 265, 1133–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 122.
    Zumoff, B., Walsh, B. T., Katz, J. L., Levin, J., Rosenfeld, R. S., Kream, J., and Weiner, H. (1983). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56, 668–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    Devesa, J., Perez-Fernandez, R., Bokser, L., Gaudeiero, G. J., Lima, L. and Casanueva, F. F. (1988). Horm. Metab. Res. 20, 57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 124.
    Boyar, R. M., Hellman, L. D., Roffwarg, H., Katz, J., Zumoff, B., O'Connor, J., Bradlow, H. L., and Fukushima, D. K. (1977). N. Engl. J. Med. 296, 190–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Walsh, B. T., Roose, S. P., Katz, J. L., Dyrenfurth, I., Wright, L., Vande Wiele, R., and Glassman, A. H. (1987). Psychoneuroendocrinology 12, 131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 126.
    Klibanski, A., Biller, B. M., Schoenfeld, D. A., Herzog, D. B., and Saxe, V. C. (1995). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 127.
    Ott, S. M. (1991). N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 1646–1647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 128.
    Bachrach, L. K., Guido, D., Katzman, D., Litt, I. F., and Marcus, R. (1990). Pediatrics 86, 440–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 129.
    Dhuper, S., Warren, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Fox, R. (1991). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71, 1083–1088.Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    Bachrach, L. K., Katzman, D. K., Litt, I. F., Guido, D., and Marcus, R. (1991). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 72, 602–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 131.
    Grinspoon, S., Wolf, L., Pinzone, J., Herzog, D., and Klibanski, A. (1997). Abstract, Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  134. 132.
    Slemenda, C., Longcope, C., Peacock, M., Hui, S., and Johnston, C. C. (1996). J. Clin. Invest. 97, 14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Slemenda, C. W., Longcope, C., Zhou, L., Hui, S., Peacock, M., and Johnston, C. C. (1997). J. Clin. Invest. 100, 1755–1759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Riis, B. J., Christansen, C., Deftos, L. J., and Catherwood, B. D. (1984) In: Osteoporosis. Christiansen, C., Arnaud, C. D., Nordin, B. E.C., Parfitt, A. M., Peck, W. A., and Riggs, B. L. (eds.). Glostrup, Denmark: Aalborg Stiftsbogtrykkeri.Google Scholar
  137. 135.
    Davidson, B. J., Riggs, B. L., Wahner, H. W., and Judd, H. L. (1983). Obstet. Gynecol. 61, 275–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 136.
    Riggs, B. L., Ryan, R. J., Wahner, H. W., Jiang, N. S., and Mattox, V. R. (1982). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36, 1097–1099.Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    Longcope, C., Baker, R. S., Hui, S. L., and Johnston, C. C. J. (1984). Maturitas 6, 309–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Rozenberg, S., Ham, H., Bosson, D., Peretz, A. and Robyn, C. (1990). Maturitas 12, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Slemenda, C., Hui, S. L., Longcope, C., and Johnston, C. C. (1987). J. Clin Invest. 97, 1261–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Spencer, N. F., Norton, S. D., Harrison, L. L., Li, G. Z., and Daynes, R. A. (1996). Exp. Gerontol. 31, 393–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine M. Gordon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julie Glowacki
    • 2
  • Meryl S. LeBoff
    • 3
  1. 1.Divisions of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine and EndocrinologyChildren's HospitalBoston
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBoston
  3. 3.Endocrine/Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBoston

Personalised recommendations