Cardiovascular Toxicology

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 155–167 | Cite as

Phosphorylation of thymidine and AZT in heart mitochondria

Elucidation of a novel mechanism of AZT cardiotoxicity
  • Edward E. McKee
  • Alice T. Bentley
  • Matthew Hatch
  • Joel Gingerich
  • Delia Susan-Resiga
Original Contributions


Antiretroviral nucleoside analogs used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are associated with cardiovascular and other tissue toxicity associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion, suggesting a block in mitochondrial (mt)-DNA replication. Because the triphosphate forms of these analogs variably inhibit mt-DNA polymerase this enzyme has been promoted as the major target of toxicity associated with HAART. We have used isolated mitochondria from rat heart to study the mitochondrial transport and phosphorylation of thymidine and AZT (azidothymidine, or zidovudine), a component used in HAART. We demonstrate that isolated mitochondria readity transport thymidine and phosphorylate it to thymidine 5′-triphosphate (TTP) within the matrix. Under identical conditions, AZT is phosphorylated only to AZT-5′-monophosphate (AZT-MP). The kinetics of thymidine and AZT agest negative cooperatively of substrate interaction with the enzyme, consistent with work by others on mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. Results show that TMP and AZT-MP are not transported across the inner membrane, suggesting that AZT-MP may accumulate with time in the matrix. Given the lack of AZT-5′-triphosphate (AZT-TP), it seems unlikely that the toxicity of AZT in the heart is mediated by AZT-TP inhibition of DNA polymerase γ. Rather, our work shows that AZT is a potent inhibitor of thymidine phosphorylation in heart mitochondria, having an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 7.0±0.9 μM. Thus, the toxicity of AZT in some tissues may be mediated by disrupting the substrate supply of TTP for mt-DNA replication.

Key Words

Heart mitochondria AZT cardiotoxicity thymidine kinase TMP kinase mitochondrial DNA depletion 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward E. McKee
    • 1
  • Alice T. Bentley
    • 1
  • Matthew Hatch
    • 1
  • Joel Gingerich
    • 1
  • Delia Susan-Resiga
    • 1
  1. 1.South Bend Center for medical EducationIndiana University School of MedicineNotre Dame

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