Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 129–140 | Cite as

Innate immune responses to environmental allergens

  • Henk E. Kauffman

Abstract

Aero-allergens, including plant pollens, house dust mite particles, fungal spores, and mycelium fragments, are continuously inhaled and deposited on the airway mucosa. These particles and their soluble components actively interact with innate recognition systems present in the mucosal layer (e.g., surfactant proteins) and with various receptors present on a diversity of cells in the airways. Deposited particles are first removed by active transportation, the rate of which is either enhanced or inhibited by components present in the inhaled substances. Cleaning further depends on innate recognition, beginning with (a) soluble factors released into the mucosal surface layer that bind different bio-organic components; (b) innate receptors on phagocytic cells, alveolar macrophages, and dendritic monocytes; and (c) innate receptors on airway epithelial cells.

Different innate receptor families (Toll-like receptors [TLRs], nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors, and protein-activated receptors [PARs]) have been demonstrated on airway cells, including alveolar macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and airway tissue cells (e.g., epithelial cells and mast cells). However, although the functional role of these receptors has been studied for infectious diseases, the functional role for reaction of airways to inhaled bio-organic substances, including allergens, is largely unexplored. Indirect evidence for functional interactions has come from in vivo animal studies, as well as in vitro studies with monocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells, which have demonstrated release of cytokines and chemokines after contact with allergens such as house dust mite, cat, pollen, and fungi. Most allergens show direct activation of airway epithelial cells, suggesting a role for the innate receptors. However, the role of TLRs, PARs, and other receptors was studied for only a limited number of allergens. Current studies indicate synergistic interactions between members of the same receptor family (TLRs) as well as synergistic interactions between members of different families (TLRs, PARs, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors), modulating responses into feed-forward or inhibitory actions. Study of these synergistic interactions and their genetic variations will provide insight regarding how the innate immune system determines the inflammatory reactions of the airwaysand the outcome ofthe, T-helper-1-and T-helper-2-type responses to inhaled allergens.

Index Entries

Innate recognition airways allergens Toll-like receptors protease-activated receptors collectins surfactant proteins monocytes epithelial cells 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kauffman, H. F. and Tomee, J. F. C. (1999) Imniunol Allergy Clin N Am 18, 619–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brunekreef, B., Hoek, G., Fischer, P., and Spieksma, F. T. (2000), Lancet 355, 1517–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hiemstra, P. S., Fernie-King, B. A., McMichael, J., Lachmann, P. J., and Sallenave, J. M. (2004), Current Pharm Des 10, 2891–2905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gallo, R. L., Murakami, M., Ohtake, T., and Zaiou, M. (2002), J Allergy Clin Immunol 110, 823–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McCormack, F. X. and Whitsett, J. A. (2002), J. Clin Invest 109, 707–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitsett, J. A. (2002), J Clin Invest 109, 565–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tomee, J. F. C., Hiemstra, P. S., Heinzel-Wieland, R., and Kauffman, H. F. (1997), J Infect Dis 176, 740–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van Wetering, S., Tjabringa, G. S., and Hiemstra, P. S. (2005), J Leuk Biol 77, 444–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Drickamer, K., Dordal, M. S., and Reynolds, L. (1986), J Biol Chem 261, 6878–6887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    LeVine, A. M., Whitsett, J. A., Hartshorn, K. L., Crouch, E. C., and Korfhagen, T. R. (2001) J Immunol 167, 5868–5873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crouch, E. C. (2000), Respir Res 1, 93–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoflfeld, J. M., Erpenbeck, V. J., and Krug, N. (2002), Pathobiology 70, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hohlfeld, J. M. (2002), Respir Res 3, 4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Crouch, E. C. (2000). Respir Res 1, 93–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crouch, E. and Wright, J. R. (2001), Annu Rev Physiol 63, 521–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, J. Y., Kishore, U., Lim, B. L., Strong, P., and Reid, K. B. (1996), Clin Exp Immunol 106, 367–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Madan, T., Kishore, U., Shah, A., et al. (1997), Clin Exp Immunol 110, 241–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, J. Y., Shieh, C. C., You, P. F., Lei, H. Y., and Reid, K. B. (1998), Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158, 510–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheng, G., Ueda, T., Nakajima, H., et al. (2000), Biochem Biophys Res Commun 270, 831–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng, G., Ueda, T., Nakajima, H., et al. (1998), Int Arch Allergy Immunol 117 (Suppl 1), 59–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Borron, P. J., Mostaghel, E. A., Doyle, C., Walsh, E. S., McHeyzer-Williams, M. G., and Wright, J. R. (2002), J Immunol 169, 5844–5850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borron, P. J., Crouch, E. C., Lewis, J. F., Wright, J. R., Possmayer, F., and Fraher, L. J. (1998), J Immunol 161, 4599–4603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singh, M., Madan, T., Waters, P., Parida, S. K., Sarma, P. U., and Kishore, U. (2003), Immunol Lett 86, 299–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Strong, P., Townsend, P., Mackay, R., Reid, K. B., and Clark, H. W. (2003), Clin Exp Immunol 134, 181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kishor, U., Madan, T., Sarma, P. U., Singh, M., Urban, B. C., and Reid, K. B. (2002), Immunobiology 205, 610–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Madan, T., Kishore, U., Singh, M., et al. (2001), J Clin Invest 107, 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Malberbe, D. C., Erpenbeck, V. J., Abraham, S. N., Crouch, E. C., Hohlfeld, J. M., and Wright, J. R. (2005), Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289, L856-L866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erpenbeck, V. J., Maiherbe, D. C., Sommer, S., et al. (2005), Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 288, L692-L698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Janeway, C. A. (1989), Nature 341, 108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Medzhitov, R. and Janeway, C. A. (1997), Curr Opin Immunol 9, 4–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lemaitre, B., Nicolas, E., Michaut, L., Reichhart, J. M., and Hoffmann, J. A. (1996), Cell 86, 973–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takeda, K. and Akira, S. (2005), Int Immunol 17, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Akira, S. and Takeda, K. (2004), Nat Rev Immunol 4, 499–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Inohara, N. and Nunez, G. (2003), Nat Rev Immunol 3, 371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cotena, A., Gordon, S., and Platt, N. (2004), J Immunol 173, 6427–6432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chamaillard, M., Girardin, S. E., Viala, J., and Philpott, D. J. (2003), Cell Microbiol 5, 581–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Girardin, S. E., Travassos, L. H., Herve, M., et al. (2003), J Biol Chem 278, 41,702–41,708.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Taylor, P. R., Gordon, S., and Martinez-Pomares, L. (2005), Trends Immunol 26, 104–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martinez-Pomares, L., Linehan, S. A., Taylor, P. R., and Gordon, S. (2001), Immunobiology, 204, 527–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van Vliet, S. J., van Liempt, E., Saeland, E., et al. (2005), Int Immunol 17, 661–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rogers, N. C., Slack, E. C., Edwards, A. D., et al. (2005), Immunity 22, 507–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taylor, P. R., Brown, G. D., Reid, D. M., et al. (2002), J Immunol 169, 3876–3882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kawai, T. and Akira, S. (2005), Arthritis Res Ther 7, 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Basu, S. and Fenton, M. J. (2004), Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286, L887-L892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Germain, R. N. (2004), Nat Med 10, 1307–1320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Droemann, D., Goldmann, T., Branscheid, D., et al. (2003), Histochem Cell Biol 119, 103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fenhalls, G., Squires, G. R., Stevens-Muller, L., et al. (2003), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 29, 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pauligk, C., Nain, M., Reiling, N., Gemsa, D., and Kaufmann, A. (2004), Immunobiology 209, 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reiling, N., Holscher, C., Fehrenbach, A., et al. (2002), J Immunol 169, 3480–3484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Krutzik, S. R., Ochoa, M. T., Sieling, P. A., et al. (2003), Nat Med 9, 525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Krutzik, S. R., Tan, B., Li, H., et al. (2005), Nat Med 11, 653–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yamamura, M. (1992), Science 255, 12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lauener, R. P., Birchler, T., Adamski, J., et al. (2002), Lancet, 360, 465–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Braun-Fahrlander, C., Riedler, J., Herz, U., et al. (2002), N Engl J Med 347, 869–877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Barton, G. M. and Medzhitov, R. (2002), Curr Opin Immunol 14, 380–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schnare, M., Barton, G. M., Holt, A. C., Takeda, K., Akira, S. and Medzhitov, R. (2001), Nat Immunol 2, 947–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Medzhitov, R., and Janeway, C., Jr. (2000), Trends Microbiol 8, 452–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kaisho, T., Hoshino, K., Iwabe, T., Takeuchi, O., Yasui, T., and Akira, S. (2002), Int Immunol, 14, 695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Muraille, E., De Trez, C., Brait, M., De, Baetselier, P., Leo, O., and Carlier, Y. (2003), J Immunol 170, 4237–4241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Boasen, J., Chisholm, D., Lebet, L., Akira, S., and Horner, A. A. (2005), J Allergy Clin Immunol 116, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Piggott, D. A., Eisenbarth, S. C., Xu, L., et al. (2005), J Clin Invest 115, 459–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Eisenbarth, S. C., Piggott, D. A., and Bottomly, K. (2003), Curr Opin Immunol 15, 620–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Eisenbarth, S. C., Piggott, D. A., Huleatt, J. W., Visintin, I., Herrick, C. A., and Bottomly, K. (2002), J Exp Med 196, 1645–1651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dabbagh, K., Dahl, M. E., Stepick-Biek, P., and Lewis, D. B. (2002), J Immunol 168, 4524–4530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kadowaki, N., Ho, S., Antonenko, S., et al. (2001), J Exp Med 194, 863–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lieberam, I. and Forster, I. (1999), Eur J Immunol 29, 2684–2694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vissers, J. L., Hartgers, F. C., Lindhout, E., Teunissen, M. B., Figdor, C. G., and Adema, G. J. (2001), J Leuk Biol 69, 785–793.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sekiya, T., Miyamasu, M., Imanishi, M., et al. (2000), J Immunol 165, 2205–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Berin, M. C., Eckmann, L., Broide, D. H., and Kagnoff, M. F. (2001), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 24, 382–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Imai, T., Nagira, M., Takagi, S., et al. (1999), Int Immunol 11, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Heijink, I. H., Vellenga, E., Oostendorp, J., de Monchy, J. G., Postma, D. S., and Kauffman, H. F. (2005), Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289, L53-L59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heijink, I. H., Vellenga, E., Borger, P., Postma, D. S., Monchy, J. G., and Kauffman, H. F. (2003), Br J Pharmacol 138, 1441–1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ozinsky, A., Underhill, D. M., Fontenot, J. D., et al. (2000), Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 13,766–13,771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bernheiden, M., Heinrich, J. M., Minigo, G., et al. (2001), J Endotoxin Res 7, 447–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Brown, G. D., Herre, J., Williams, D. L., Willment, J. A., Marshall, A. S., and Gordon, S. (2003), J Exp Med 197, 1119–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Adamo, R., Sokol, S., Soong, G., Gomez, M. I., and Prince, A. (2004), Am J Respir Cell Mol. Biol 30, 627–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    van Rijt, L. S., Jung, S., Kleinjan, A., et al., (2005), J Exp Med 201, 981–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lambrecht, B. N., Peleman, R. A., Bullock, G. R., and Pauwels, R. A. (2000), Clin Exp Allergy 30, 214–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Deslee, G., Charbonnier, A. S., Hammad, H., et al. (2002), J Allergy Clin Immunol 110, 763–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Currie, A. J., Stewart, G. A., and McWilliam, A. S. (2000), J Immunol 164, 3878–3886.EPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tomee, J. F. C., Weissenbruch, R. V., Monchy, J. G. R. D., and Kauffman, H. F. (1998), J Allergy Clin Immunol 102, 75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kauffman, H. F., Timmerman, A. J., and Borger, P. (2001). Protease dependent and independent activation of airway derived epithelial cells bij house dust mite allergens, Der p1 and Der p5. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107, S39 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vercelli, D., Baldini, M., Stern, D., Lohman, I. C., Halonen, M., and Martinez, F. (2001), J Endotoxin Res 7, 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Baldini, M., Lohman, I. C., Halonen, M., Erickson, R. P., Holt, P. G., and Martinez, F. D. (1999), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 20, 976–983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Koppelman, G. H., Reijmerink, N. E., Colin, S. O., et al. (2001), Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163, 965–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Eder, W., Klimecki, W., Yu, L., et al. (2004), J Allergy Clin Immunol 113, 482–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Weidinger, S., Klopp, N., Rummler, L., et al. (2005), J Allergy Clin Immunol 116, 177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hysi, P., Kabesch, M., Moffatt, M. F., et al. (2005), Hum Mol Genet 14, 935–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Reed, C. E. and Kita, H. (2004), J Allergy Clin Immunol 114, 997–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cocks, T. M. and Moffatt, J. D. (2001), Pulm Pharmacol Ther 14, 183–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Asokananthan, N., Graham, P. T., Fink, J., et al. (2002), J Immunol 168, 3577–3585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sun, G., Stacey, M. A., Schmidt, M., Mori, L., and Mattoli, S. (2001), J Immunol 167, 1014–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vliagoftis, H., Schwingshackl, A., Milne, C. D., et al. (2000), J Allergy Clin Immunol 106, 537–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kauffman, H. F., Tomee, J. F., van de Riet, M. A., Timmerman, A. J., and Borger, P. (2000), J Allergy Clin Immunol 105, 1185–1193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sun, G., Stacey, M. A., Schmidt, M., Mori, L., and Mattoli, S. (2001), J Immunol 167, 1014–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Asokananthan, N., Graham, P. T., Stewart, D. J., et al. (2002), J Immunol 169, 4572–4578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tomee, J. F. C., Wierenga, A. T. J., Hiemstra, P. S., and Kauffman, H. F. (1997), J Infect Dis 176, 300–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wan, H., Winton, H. L., Soeller, C., et al. (2001), Clin Exp Allergy 31, 279–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wan, H., Winton, H. L., Soeller, C., et al. (1999), J Clin Invest 104, 123–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wan, H., Winton, H. L., Soeller, C., et al. (2000), Clin Exp Allergy 30, 685–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Herbert, C. A., King, C. M., Ring, P. C., et al. (1995), Am J Respir Crit Care Med 12, 369–378.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hassim, Z., Maronese, S. E., and Kumar, R. K. (1998), Thorax 53, 368–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chow, J. M., Moffatt, J. D., and Cocks, T. M. (2000), Br J Pharmacol 131, 1584–1591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cocks, T. M., Fong, B., Chow, J. M., et al. (1999), Nature 398, 156–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Moffatt, J. D., Jeffrey, K. L., and Cocks, T. M. (2002), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 26, 680–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schmidlin, F., Amadesi, S., Dabbagh, K., et al. (2002), J Immunol 169, 5315–5321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hertz, C. J., Wu, Q., Porter, E. M., et al. (2003), J Immunol 171, 6820–6826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Duits, L. A., Ravensbergen, B., Rademaker, M., Hiemstra, P. S., and Nibbering, P. H. (2002), Immunology 106, 517–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hiemstra, P. S., van Wetering, S., and Stolk, J. (1999), Eur Respir J 14, 731.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tomee, J. F. C., Koëter, G. H., Hiemstra, P. S., and Kauffman, H. F. (1998), Thorax 53, 114–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kauffman, H. F. and van der Heide, S. (2003), Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3, 430–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Green, B. J., Sercombe, J. K., and Tovey, E. R. (2005), J Allergy Clin Immunol 115, 1043–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kurup, V. P. (1984), Immunobiology 166, 53–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Philippe, B., Ibrahim-Granet, O., Prevost, M. C., et al. (2003), Infect Immun 71, 3034–3042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ibrahim-Granet, O., Philippe, B., Boleti, H., et al. (2003), Infect Immun 71, 891–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Washburn, R. G., Gallin, J. I., and Bennett, J. E. (1987), Infect Immun 55, 2088–2092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mambula, S. S., Sau, K., Henneke, P., Golenbock, D. T., and Levitz, S. M. (2002), J Biol Chem 277, 39,320–39,326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wang, J. E., Warris, A., Ellingsen, E. A., et al. (2001), Infect Immun 69, 2402–2406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Netea, M. G., Van der, G. C., van der Meer, J. W., and Kullberg, B. J. (2004), Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23, 672–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Netea, M. G., Van Der Graaf, C. A., Vonk, A. G., et al. (2002), J Infect Dis 185, 1483–1489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Netea, M. G., Warris, A., Van Der Meer, J. W., et al. (2003), J Infect Dis 188, 320–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Braedel, S., Radsak, M., Einsele, H., et al. (2004), Br J Haematol 125, 392–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Paris, S., Boisvieux, U. E., Crestani, B., et al. (1997), Infect Immun 65, 1510–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    DeHart, D. J., Agwu, D. E., Julian, N. C., and Washburn, R. G. (1997), J Infect Dis 175, 146–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Yang, Z., Jaeckisch, S. M., and Mitchell, C. G. (2000), Thorax 55, 579–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zhang, Z., Liu, R., Noordhoek, J. A., and Kauffman, H. F. (2005), J Infect, 375–382.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kauffman, H. F. and Heijink, I. H. (2005), in Airway remodeling in fungal allergy, Mold Allergy, Kurup, V. P., ed. Research Signpost, pp 237–255.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sha, Q., Truong-Tran, A. Q., Plitt, J. R., Beck, L. A., and Schleimer, R. P. (2004), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 31, 358–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Guillot, L., Medjane, S., Le Barillec, K., et al. (2004), J Biol Chem 279, 2712–2718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Armstrong, L., Medford, A. R., Uppington, K. M., et al. (2004), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 31, 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Guillot, L., Le Goffic, R., Bloch, S., et al. (2005), J Biol Chem 280, 5571–5580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Homma, T., Kato, A., Hashimoto, N., et al. (2004), Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 31, 463–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Soong, G., Reddy, B., Sokol, S., Adamo, R., and Prince, A. (2004), J Clin Invest 113, 1482–1489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dong, Z., Yang, Z., and Wang, C. (2005), Am J Rhinol 19, 236–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henk E. Kauffman
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinic for Internal Medicine, Department of AllergologyUniversity Medical Centre GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations