Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 94, Issue 2, pp 157–166 | Cite as

Effects of zinc deficiency and supplementation on malondialdehyde and glutathione levels in blood and tissues of rats performing swimming exercise

  • Ahmet Ozturk
  • Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci
  • Rasim Mogulkoc
  • Esma Oztekin
  • Abdullah Sivrikaya
  • Erdal Kurtoglu
  • Aylin Kul


The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of zinc deficiency and supplementation on lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in blood and in some tissues of rats performing swimming exercise. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group 1, zinc-deficient consisted of swimming rats; group 2 consisted of zinc-supplemented swimming rats; groups 3 and 4 were the swimming and nonswimming controls, respectively. The levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione were measured after 4 wk of zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented diet and 30 min of swimming exercise daily.

The erythrocyte glutathione levels of groups 2 and 4 were significantly higher than those of groups 1 and 3 (p<0.01). The plasma malondialdehyde level of group 1 was significantly higher than all other groups. The glutathione levels in liver, kidney, striated muscle, and testes of group 2 were higher than in the other groups (p<0.01) and higher in kidney and striated muscle of group 3 than in groups 1 and 4 (p<0.01). The tissue malondialdehyde levels of striated muscle, liver, kidney, and testes of group 1 were significantly higher than for all other groups (p<0.01). Our findings suggest that both swimming exercise and zinc deficiency result in an increase of lipid peroxidation in tissues and that zinc supplementation prevents these alterations by the activation of the antioxidant system.

Index Entries

Zinc swimming exercise lipid peroxidation GSH rat 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. K. Powers and K. Hamilton, Antioxidants and exercise, Clin. Sports Med. 18, 525–536 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Micheletti, R. Rossi, and S. Rufini, Zinc status in athletes relation to diet and exercise, Sports Med. 31, 577–582 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. Semin, B. M. Kayatekin, S. Gonenc, et al., Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels of intestinal renal and muscle tissues after a 60 minute exercise in trained mice, Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 44, 419–427. (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Temiz, O. K. Baskurt, C. Pekcetin, F. Kandemir, and A. Gure, Leukocyte activation oxidant stress and red blood cell properties after acute exhausting exercise in rats, Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 22, 253–259 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. B. Child, D. M. Wilkinson, J. L. Fallowfield, and A. E. Donnely, Elevated serum antioxidant capacity and plasma malondialdehyde concentration in response to a simulated half-marathon run, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 30, 1603–1607 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Gonenc, O. Acikgöz, I. Semin, and H. Ozgonul, The effect of moderate swimming exercise on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in children, Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 44, 340–344 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Kanter, Free radicals exercise and antioxidant supplementation, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 57, 9–13 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. R. Powell, The antioxidant properties of zinc, J. Nutr. 130, 1447–1454 (2000).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. I. Oteiza, V. N. Adonaylo, and C. L. Keen, Cadmium-induced testes oxidative damage in rats can be influenced by dietary zinc intake, Toxicology 137, 13–22 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Cao, Effects of zinc deficiency and supplements on lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase in mice, Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 71, 623–626 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. A. Shaheen and A. A. El-Fettah, Effect of dietary zinc on lipid peroxidation glutathione protein thiols levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rat tisues, Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 27, 89–95 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. L. Oteiza, K. L. Olin, C. G. Fraga, and C. L. Keen, Oxidant defense systems in testes from zinc-deficient rats, Proc. Soc. Biol. Med. 213, 85–91 (1996).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. H. Cao and J. D. Chen, Effects of dietary zinc on free radical generation lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase in trained mice, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 291, 147–153 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. S. Bediz, A. K. Baltaci, A. M. Tiftik, H. Vatansev, and M. Gokcen, Effects of zinc deficiency on some hormones in rats, Selcuk J. Med. 15, 59–63 (1999).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. K. Baltaci, N. Ergene, A. Ates, C. S. Bediz, R. Ozmerdivenli, and S. Duman, Serum zinc levels and the effect of zinc supplementation on cellular immunity in experimentally induced toxoplasma gondii infections, J. Turgut Ozal Med. Center 2, 130–134 (1995).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. H. Draper and M. Hadley, Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation, Methods Enzymol. 186, 421–430 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Uchiyama and M. Mihara, Determination of malondyaldehyde precurser in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test, Anal. Biochem. 86, 271–278 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Atroshi and M. Sandholm, Red blood cell glutathione as a marker of milk production in Finn sheep, Res. Vet. Sci. 33, 256–258 (1981).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. L. Ellmann, Tissue sulfhydryl groups, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 82, 70–77 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. F. Goode, H. C. Cowley, and B. E. Walker, Decreased antioxidant status and increased lipid peroxidation in patients with septic shock and secondary organ dysfunction, Crit. Care. Med. 23, 646–651 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. F. Galley, M. J. Davies, and N. R. Webster, Xantine oxidase activity and free radical generation in patients with sepsis syndrome, Crit. Care Med. 24, 1649–1653 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. E. Laaksonen, M. Atalay, L. Niskanen, M. Uusitupa, O. Hanninen, and C. K. Sen, Blood glutathione homeostasis as a determinant of resting and exercise-induced oxidative stress in young men, Redox Rep. 4, 53–59 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. V. Anuradhe and S. D. Balakrishnan, Effect of training on lipid peroxidation thiol status and antioxidant enzymes in tissues of rats, Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 42, 64–70 (1998).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Nakao, T. Ookawara, T. Kizaki, et al., Effects of swimming training on three superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in mouse tissues, J. Appl. Physiol. 33, 649–654 (2000).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. W. Girotti, J. P. Thomas, and J. E. Jordan, Inhibitory effect of zinc on free radical lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, Free Radical Biol. Med. 1, 395–401 (1985).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Sato and I. Bremmer, Oxygen free radicals and metallotthionein, Free Radical Biol. Med. 14, 325–337, (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Singh, M. L. Failla, and P. A. Deuster, Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation, J. Appl. Physiol. 76, 2298–2303 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Cordova and F. J. Navas, Effect of training on zinc metabolism: changes in serum and sweat zinc concentrations in sportsmen, Ann. Nutr. Metab. 42, 274–282 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Haralambie, Serum zinc in athletes in training, Int. J. Sports Med. 2, 135–138 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Couzy, P. Lafargue, and C. Y. Guezennec, Zinc metabolism in the athlete: influence of training nutrition and other factors, Int. J. Sports Med. 11, 263–266 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Ozturk
    • 1
  • Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci
    • 2
  • Rasim Mogulkoc
    • 2
  • Esma Oztekin
    • 3
  • Abdullah Sivrikaya
    • 3
  • Erdal Kurtoglu
    • 4
  • Aylin Kul
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologySelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologySelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistrySelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Hematology, Meram Medical SchoolSelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations