Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 81, Issue 2, pp 93–103 | Cite as

Prevalence of zinc deficiency in junior high school students of tehran city

  • Mohammad Reza Mahmoodi
  • Seyed Masud Kimiagar
Article

Abstract

Zinc deficiency is a health problem in many communities especially among adolescents because of pubertal growth sprout. This investigation was carried out to determine the epidemiology of zinc deficiency in junior high school students in Tehran City in 1997. This cross-sectional study was performed on 881 students (452 males and 429 females) with the mean age of 13.2±1.0 yr, who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Plasma, erythrocyte, and hair zinc levels were assayed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were measured and recorded on a questionnaire. Dietary intakes were evaluated by a 24-h recall method. Zinc deficiency was defined as having at least two indices from indices of erythrocyte, plasma, and hair zinc below 10 µg/mL, 100 µg/dL, and 125 µg/g of hair, respectively.

The results showed that zinc deficiency prevalence was 31.1% (confidence interval: 28–34.4%). Zinc deficiency was 65%, 49%, and 1.3% based on plasma, erythrocyte, and hair zinc levels, respectively. The mean ± SD for plasma, erythrocyte, and hair zinc concentration, height-for-age, as well as weight-for-age Z scores were 95.2±17.7 µg/dL, 10.3±2.3 µg/mL, 239.4±54.4 µg/g, −0.40±0.92, and 0.12±0.91, respectively. As for dietary intake compared with the RDA, 50% of the subjects consumed less than 50% of their requirement for zinc RDA based on a 24-h dietary recall. Zinc intake in subjects was 7.5±3.7 µg, that in boys was higher than in girls. Correlation coefficients between zinc status indices were very weak. There was neither a linear nor nonlinear relationship between biochemical parameters and nutritional zinc intake. It is concluded that almost one-third to one-half of the subjects would be considered zinc deficient.

Index Entries

Zinc deficiency epidemiology prevalence plasma erythrocyte hair anthropometric Z score dietary intake student 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. A. Burtis and E. R. Ashwood, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1329–1333 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. C. King and C. L. Keen, Zinc, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, M. E. Shils, J. A. Olson, and M. Shike, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 214–229 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. K. Mahan and M. Arlin, Zinc, in Krause’s Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 123–126 (1992).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. C. McLaren, D. Burman, N. R. Belton, and A. F. Williams, Textbook of Paediatric Nutrition, 3/e, Churchill Livingtone, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 462–468 (1991).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. H. Sandstead, Requirement and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61(Suppl.), S621–624 (1995).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. E. Favier, Hormonal effects of zinc on growth in children, Biol. Trace Element Res. 32, 383–397 (1992).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. L. Bishop et al., Clinical Chemistry. Principles, Procedures, Correlation, 2nd ed. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 290–292 (1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. W. Tietz, Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 650–653 (1995).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization, Measuring Changes in Nutritional Status, Geneva, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Fidanza, Nutritional Status Assessment, Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 385–395 (1991).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. C. Whitehouse, A. S. Prasad, P. I. Rabbani, and Z. T. Cossack, Zinc in plasma, neutrophils, lymphocyte, and erythrocytes determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Clin. Chem. 28, 475–480 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. D. Stevens, W. F. Mackenize, and V. D. Anand, A simplified method for determination of zinc in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Biochem. Med. 18, 158–163 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. M. Pilch and F. R. Senti, Analysis of zinc data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), J. Nutr. 115, 1393–1397 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Eminians, J. G. Reinhold, G. A. Kfoury, G. H. Amirhakimi, H. Sharif, and M. Ziai, Zinc nutrition children in Fars of province of Iran, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20, 734–742 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. D. Vanderkooy and R. S. Gibson, Food consumption patterns of Canadian preschool children in relation to zinc and growth status, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45, 609–616 (1987).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. D. McBean, M. Mahloudji, J. G. Reinhold, and J. A. Halsted, Correlation of zinc concentrations in human plasma and hair, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24, 506–509 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Thompson, R. Roseborough, E. Russek, and R. B. Moser, Zinc status and sexual development in adolescent girls, J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 86, 892–897 (1986).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. S. Gibson, P. D. S. Vanderkooy, A. C. MacDonald, A. Goldman, B. A. Ryan, and M. Berry, A growth-limiting, mild zinc-deficiency syndrome in some southern Ontario boys with low height percentiles, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 1266–1273 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. P. Van Wouwe, Clinical and laboratory assessment of zinc deficiency in Dutch children, a review, Biol. Trace Element Res. 49, 211–225 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. R. Cavan, R. S. Gibson, C. F. Grazioso, A. M. Isalgue, and M. Ruz, Growth and body composition of periurban Guatemalan children in relation to zinc status: a cross-sectional study, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57, 334–343 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Heinersdorff and T. G. Taylor, Concentration of zinc in the hair of school children, Arch. Dis. Child. 54, 958–960 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Perrone, R. Moro, and M. Caroli, Trace elements in hair of healthy children sampled by age and sex, Biol. Trace Element Res. 51, 71–76 (1996).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. S. Gibson, A. Heywood, C. Yaman, A. Sohlström, L. U. Thompson, and P. Heywood, Growth in children from the Wosera subdistrict, Papua New Guinea, in relation to energy and protein intakes and zinc status, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 782–789 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Kimiagar, L. Navai, M. Yassai, F. Malek, and B. Samimi, Zinc intake and bioavailability in a Tehran suburb. What is the minimum requirement? in Nutrient Availability, Chemical and Biological Aspects, D. Southgate, et al., eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp. 421–424 (1989).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. J. Thomas, V. W. Bunker, L. J. Hinks, N. Sodha, M. A. Mullee, and B. E. Clayton, Energy, protein, zinc and copper status of twenty-one elderly patients: analysed dietary intake and biochemical indices, Br. J. Nutr. 59, 181–191 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. S. Gibson, Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59(Suppl.), S1223–1232 (1994).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. W. Solomons, Zinc bioavailability to humans, in Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Nutrition, T. G. Taylor and N. K. Jenkins, eds., John Libby, UK, pp. 504–508 (1988).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Singh, B. A. Day, J. E. Debolt, U. H. Trostmann, L. L. Bernier, and P. A. Deuster, US Navy SEAL trainees, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 695–700 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Brandao-Neto, V. Stefan, B. B. Mendonca, and W. Bloise, The essential role of zinc in growth, Nutr. Res. 15, 335–358 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. D. McClatchey, Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, p. 482 (1994).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    B. Thomas, Manual of Dietetic Practice, Blackwell Science, Boston, pp 173–182 (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Reza Mahmoodi
    • 1
  • Seyed Masud Kimiagar
    • 2
  1. 1.Nutrition Department, School of HealthKerman University of Medical Science and Health ServicesKermanIran
  2. 2.National Nutrition and Food Technology Research InstituteShaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science and Health ServicesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations