Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 110, Issue 3, pp 193–209 | Cite as

Analyses of toxic metals and essential minerals in the hair of arizona children with autism and associated conditions, and their mothers

  • J. B. Adams
  • C. E. Holloway
  • F. George
  • D. Quig
Article

Abstract

The objective of this study ws to assess the levels of 39 toxic metals and essential minerals in hair samples of children with autism spectrum disorders and their mothers compared to controls. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the elemental content of the hair of children with autism spectrum disorders (n=51), a subset of their mothers (n=29), neurotypical children (n=40), and a subset of their mothers (n=25). All participants were recruited from Arizona. Iodine levels were 45% lower in the children with autism (p=0.005). Autistic children with pica had a 38% lower level of chromium (p=0.002). Autistic children with low muscle tone had very low levels of potassium (−66%, p=0.01) and high zinc (31%, p=0.01). The mothers of young children with autism had especially low levels of lithium (56% lower, p=0.005), and the young children (ages 3–6 yr) with autism also had low lithium (−30% p=0.04). Low iodine levels are consistent with previous reports of abnormal thyroid function, which likely affected development of speech and cognitive skills. Low lithium in the mothers likely caused low levels of lithium in the young children, which could have affected their neurological and immunological development. Further investigations of iodine, lithium, and other elements are warranted.

Index Entries

Autism hair analysis iodine lithium potassium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Bernard, A. Enayati, H. Roger, et al., Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning, Med. Hypotheses 56(4), 462–471 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Seidel, R. Kreutzer, D. Smith, et al., Assessment of commerical laboratories performing hair mineral analysis, JAMA 285(1), 67–72 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Toxic trace metals in mammalian hair and nails EPA Report No. EPA-6-4-79-049, US EPA, Washington, DC (1989).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. A. McDowell, F. Dillon, J. Osterloh, et al., Hair mercury levels in U.S. children and women of childbearing age: reference range data from NHANES 1999–2000, Environ. Health Perspect. 112(11), 1165–1171 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. R. Shearer, K. Larson, J. Neuschwander, et al., Minerals in the hair and nutrient intake of autistic children, J. Autism Dev. Disord. 12(1), 25–34 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. S. Gentile, M. J. Trentalange, W. Zamichek, et al., Trace elements in the hair of autistic and control children, J. Autism Dev Disord. 13(2), 205–206 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Marlowe, A. Cossairt, J. Stellern, et al., Decreased magnesium in the hair of autistic children, J. Orthomol. Psychiatry 13(2), 117–122 (1984).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Wecker, S. B. Miller, S. R. Cochran, et al., Trace element concentrations in hair from autistic children, J. Ment. Defic. Res. 29, 15–22 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Kimhi, Y. Barak, T. Schlezinger, et al., Vandadium concentrations in autistic subjects, New Trends Exp. Clin. Psychiatry 14(4), 205–207 (1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Ip, V. Wong, M. Ho, et al., Mercury exposure in children with autistic spectrum disorder: case-control study, J Child. Neurol. 19(6), 431–434 (2004).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. S. Holmes, M. F. Blaxill, and B. E. Haley, Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children, Int. J. Toxicol. 22(4), 277–285 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. S. Ryabukin, Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants, IAEA Report, IAEA/RL/50, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. F. Puchyr, D. A. Bass, R. Gajewski, et al., Preparation of hair for measurement of elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Biol. Trace Element Res. 62, 167–182 (1998).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. B. Adams, C. Holloway, M. Margolis, et al., Heavy metal exposures, developmental milestones, and physical symptoms in children with autism, Spring 2004 Conference Proceedings of Defeat Autism Now!, pp. 113–116 (2004).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Rowland, M. Davies and J. Evans, Tissue content of mercury in rats given methylmercury chloride orally: influence of intestinal flora, Arch. Environ. Health 35, 155–160 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. N. Megson, Is autism a G-alpha protein defect reversible with natural vitamin A? Med. Hypotheses. 54(6), 979–983 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    I. Nir, D. Meir, N. Zilber, et al., Circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism. J. Autism Dev Disord. 25(6), 641–654 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Hashimoto, R. Aihara, M. Tayama, et al., Reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in autistics boys, Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 33(4), 313–319 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Abbassi, T. Linscheid, and M. Coleman, Triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and therapy in autistic children. J. Autism Child. Schizophr. 8(4), 383–387 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. G. Hollowell, N. W. Staehling, W. H. Hannon, et al., Iodine nutrition in the United States, Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994), J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83(10) 3401–3408 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Zareba, E. Cernichiari, L. A. Goldsmith, et al., Biological monitoring of iodine a water disinfectant for long-term space missions, Environ. Health Perspect. 103(11), 1032–1035 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Anke, W. Arhnold, B. Groppel, et al., The biological importance of lithium, in Lithium in Biology and Medicine, G. N. Schrauzer and K. F. Klippel eds, VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp. 149–167 (1991).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. Baumann, G. Stadie, and M. Anke, Der Lithiumstatus des Menschen, in Proceedings 4 Spurenelement Symposium 1983, M. Anke, W. Baumann, H. Braunlich, et al., eds. VEB Kongressdurck, Jena, pp. 180–185 (1983).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. N. Schrauzer, Lithium: occurrence, dietary intakes, nutritional essentiality, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21(1), 14–21 (2002).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. P. Dawson, T. D. Morroe, and W. J. McGanity, Relationship of lithium metabolism to mental hospital admission and homicide, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 33, 546–556 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. N. Schrauzer and K. P. Shrestha, Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to drug addictions, Biol. Trace Element Res. 25, 105–113 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. N. Schrauzer and K. P. Shrestha, Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to durg addictions, in Lithium in Biology and Medicine, G. N. Schrauzer and K. F. Klippel, eds., VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp. 191–203 (1991).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. N. Schrauzer and E. de Vroey, Effects of nutritional lithium supplementation on mood, Biol. Trace Element Res. 40, 89–101 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Singhi, R. Ravishanker, P. Singhi, et al., Low plasma zinc and iron in pica, Indian J. Pediatr. 70(2), 139–143 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Adams
    • 1
  • C. E. Holloway
    • 1
  • F. George
    • 2
  • D. Quig
    • 3
  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityTempe
  2. 2.Holistic Osteopathic medical CareCave Creek
  3. 3.Doctor's DataSt. Charles

Personalised recommendations