Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 79, Issue 1–3, pp 867–876

The nature of lignin from steam explosion/enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

Structural features and possible uses scientific note
  • Sergey M. Shevchenko
  • Rodger P. Beatson
  • John N. Saddler
Article

Abstract

Effective utilization of the lignin by-product is a prerequisite to the commercial viability of ethanol production from softwood wastes using a steam explosion (SE)/enzymatic hydrolysis (EH)/fermentation process. Changes in the chemical composition of Douglas fir wood on SO2-catalyzed SE followed by EH were assessed using conventional analytical methods and new halogen-probetechniques. A significant solubilization of hemicelluloses was observed in the SE stage, the severity of which affected subsequent fermentation of cellulose and sorption of enzymes. SE of softwood resulted in dramatic changes in the chemical structure of lignin in the residual material involving chemical reactions via the benzyl cation. This leads to a more condensed lignin with partly blocked α-reaction centres. Possible uses for this lignin are discussed.

Index entries

Lignin steam explosion enzymatic hydrolysis softwood 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Saddler, J. N., Ramos, L. P., and Breuil, C. (1993), in Bioconversion of Forest and Agricultural Plant Residues, C. A. B. International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 73–91.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gregg, D. and Saddler, J. N. (1995), Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 57/58, 711–727.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saddler, J. N., Brownell, H. H., Clermont, L. P., and Levitin, N. (1982), Biotechnol. Bioeng. 24, 1389–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brownell, H. H. and Saddler, J. N. (1984), Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 14, 55–68.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee, D., Yu, A. H. C., and Saddler, J. N. (1995), Biotechnol. Bioeng. 45, 328–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marchessault, R. H., Coulombe, S., Morikawa, H., and Robert, D. (1981), Can. J. Chem. 60, 2372–2382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sudo, K., Shimizu, K., and Sakurai, K. (1985), Holzforschung 29, 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lapierre, C., Pollet, B., and Rolando, C. (1995), in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, vol. 1, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 131–138.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robert, D., Bardet, M., Lapierre, C., and Gellerstedt, G. (1988), Cellulose Chem. Technol. 22, 221–230.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hemmingson, J. A. (1987), J. Wood Chem. Technol. 7, 527–553.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heitz, M., Capek-Menard, E., Koeberle, P. G., Gagne, J., Chornet, E., Overend, R. P., Taylor, J. D., and Yu, E. (1991), Bioresource Technol. 35, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shevchenko, S. M., Akim, L. G., Apushkinsky, A. G., and Gindin, V. A. (1991), Chem. Papers 45, 109–118.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shevchenko, S. M., Bailey, G. W., Yu, S. Y., and Akim, L. G. (1996), TAPPI J. 79(3), 227–237.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schwald, W., Smaridge, T., Chan, M., Breuil, C., and Saddler, J. N. (1989), in Enzyme Systems for Lignocellulosic Degradation, Coughlan, M. P., ed., Elsevier, New York, pp. 231–242.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ooshima, H., Burns, D. S., and Converse, A. O. (1990), Biotechnol. Bioeng. 36, 446–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shevchenko, S. M., Akim, L. G., Tanahashi, M., and Higuchi, T. (1995), J. Wood Chem. Technol. 15, 163–178.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chudakov, M. I. (1983), Industrial Utilization of Lignin, Les. Prom., Moscow, Russia.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shevchenko, S. M. and Bailey, G. W. (1996), Crit. Rev. Envir. Sci. Technol. 26, 95–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Telysheva, G. M., and Pankova, R. E. (1978), Lignin-Based Fertilizers, Zinatne, Riga, Latvia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey M. Shevchenko
    • 1
  • Rodger P. Beatson
    • 1
  • John N. Saddler
    • 1
  1. 1.Forest Products Biotechnology, Department of Wood ScienceUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations