Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding: A Prospective 4-Year Follow-up Study
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Background: A body mass index of ≥40 kg/m2 represents clinically severe obesity and warrants operative treatment if requested. The adjustable silicone gastric band and the Swedish adjustable gastric band are recently produced laparoscopic gastric restrictive devices. The aim of this study was to assess all complications linked to both the available gastric bands in a long-term follow-up. Methods: In a prospective study, the effects, complications, and outcomes of this procedure were analyzed. The complications found were divided into early and general complications, and complications correlated to the bands. The technique of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is described. Follow-up was performed by the operating team. Results: Between July 1994 and August 1998, the authors operated on 158 patients and performed 102 adjustable silicone gastric bandings and 54 Swedish adjustable gastric bandings. The mean age at surgery was 36 years (range 17-72). The mean preoperative weight was 136 kg (89-230). Of 158 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures, 156(98%) could be followed up (mean 28 months; duration of follow-up, 6 weeks to 46 months). In early postoperative complications that required operation, one trocar wound hematoma (0.6%) and one wound infection of the port site (0.6%) were observed. The late complications that required reoperation were two pouch dilatations (1.3%), three band leakages (2%), one band migration (0.6%), and one late infection of the port (0.6%). A debanding operation was necessary in one patient because of esophageal dysmotility disorder. No early or late postoperative mortality was registered. The overall reoperation rate is currently about 7%. Conclusion: The operation is safe and effective. Moreover, adjustable gastric banding is fully reversible and is adjustable to the patient's needs. This study verifies the importance of correct operating technique. The authors' study and experience clearly indicate that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is an attractive alternative in the surgical treatment of morbid obesity.
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