Changes in Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Secretion after Biliopancreatic Diversion or Vertical Banded Gastroplasty in Obese Subjects
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Background: Bariatric operations promote weight loss and improve glucose homeostasis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered as a possible mediator of the antidiabetic effects of such operations. Methods: The present study aimed to gain information on the time course for changes in glucose tolerance, as well as insulin, glucagon and GLP-1 secretion, during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in 31 obese patients examined 1, 3 and 6 months after Larrad's biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) or 6 months after vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). Results: A time-related progressive decrease in body weight coincided with lowering of plasma triglycerides, decrease of basal plasma glucose and its incremental area during OGTT, and reduction of basal plasma insulin together with an increase of its incremental area. The time-related decrease of plasma glucagon during OGTT was comparable before and after surgery. Both the basal plasma GLP-1 concentration and its incremental area during the OGTT increased strikingly after surgery, a steady-state situation being reached 3 months after surgery. The most striking differences between the somewhat older and less glucose-tolerant subjects of VBG compared to BPD after surgery, consisted in a decrease in cholesterol and LDL only observed in BPD and a much more pronounced increase in basal and incremental plasma GLP-1 in BPD. GLP-1, like glucagon, increased lipolysis, but failed to duplicate the lipogenetic action of insulin in isolated adipocytes obtained at the time of surgery. Conclusion: These findings support the postulated role of GLP-1, secreted by the hindgut, as a key mediator of the antidiabetic effects of bariatric operations.
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