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Cybersecurity regulation in Brazil and Latin America: an overview

Verordnungen zur Cybersicherheit in Brasilien und Lateinamerika – eine Übersicht

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Abstract

Cybersecurity regulation is a 21st Century issue that States around the world are dealing with considering the continuous growth and expansion of telecommunications networks. As the matter involves political and technical scopes, the ideal measure of the regulatory framework is an actual challenge. Considering this scenario, Brazil has been working on its legal order to adapt it to the new reality. The present article aims to map and describe the regulation in force regarding cybersecurity in Brazil, focusing on: (i) setting basic parameters for comprehending Brazilian’s telecommunication regulatory system; (ii) analyzing recently issued regulations; and (iii) highlighting important aspects of 5G-related cybersecurity matters. The methodology is focused on the analysis of relevant laws and regulations. In the same sense, the research conducted chose four Latin American countries that are more representative in an economic perspective, along with Brazil, in the region, to further understand the needs of the region overall. For Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, the focus of the analysis is the development and evolution of cybersecurity matters from a regulatory perspective. As a conclusion, Brazil conducted many regulatory changes in recent years, leading to the consolidation of a cybersecurity policy and the development of the 5G project after the conclusion of the public bid on frequency bands in 2021. However, the country still needs to deal with infrastructure expansion and to assure that cybersecurity compliance will be a commitment to be effectively fulfilled beyond the regulation’s provision—which is also a challenge for the analyzed Latin American countries.

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Notes

  1. COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Convention on Cybercrime. Available at: https://rm.coe.int/1680081561. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  2. BRAZIL. FEDERAL SENATE. Brazil approves the Convention on Cybercrime. Available on https://www12.senado.leg.br/noticias/materias/2021/12/15/aprovada-adesao-do-brasil-a-convencao-sobre-o-crime-cibernetico. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  3. For the comparative regulatory research, specific analyses related to political influence or historical situation were not considered, and the main focus was the technical legal analysis from the regulatory framework.

  4. BRAZIL. General Telecommunications Statute. Law 9.472/1997. Available at (Portuguese): http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9472.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  5. BRAZIL. Law 11.384/2019 Available at (Portuguese): http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2019-2022/2019/lei/l13848.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  6. As discussed in the Legislative Branch during the legislative procedure for The General Telecommunications Statute (Law 9.472/1997).

  7. BRAZIL. ANATEL. Institucional. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/acesso-a-informacao/institucional. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  8. LGT, Article 8. The National Telecommunications Agency is created, an entity that is part of the indirect Federal Public Administration, subject to a special autonomous regime and linked to the Ministry of Communications, with the function of regulatory body for telecommunications, with headquarters in the Federal District, being able to establish regional units. (Translated).

  9. BRAZIL. Law 13.879/2019. Available at (Portuguese): http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2019-2022/2019/lei/L13879.htm#:~:text=LEI%20N%C2%BA%2013.879%2C%20DE%203,16%20de%20julho%20de%201997. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  10. The legal concepts of “concession” and “authorization” are provided for in ANATEL’s Ordinance n°. 65/1998. According to the rule, a “concession” of telecommunication service is a public service delegation by contract for a specified period, under the public regime, subjecting the concessionaire to business risks, remunerating itself by charging service fees to users or other alternative revenues, and responding directly for its obligations and for the losses it causes (Article 1, first paragraph). An authorization would be the binding administrative act that allows the exploitation, in the private regime, of a modality of telecommunications service, when the necessary objective and subjective conditions are met, as provided for in Article 2, sole paragraph.

  11. Which was allowed based on the regulation issued after Law n° 13.879/2019, such as Federal Decree n° 10.402 and ANATEL’s Ordinance n° 741/2021, which regulates the new regime.

  12. According to the Technical Note released by the Brazilian Ministry of Economy. Available at: https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/centrais-de-conteudo/publicacoes/notas-informativas/2021/novembro/ni-privatizacao-e-concessao-aumentam-a-oferta-dos-bens-e-servicos-para-a-populacao.pdf. Access on: 03.20.2022.

  13. BRAZIL. Senado Federal. “Nova Lei das Teles entra em vigor com a promessa de aumentar investimentos.” Available at: https://www12.senado.leg.br/noticias/materias/2019/12/27/nova-lei-das-teles-entra-em-vigor-com-a-promessa-de-aumentar-investimentos. Access on: 03.20.2022.

  14. BRAZIL. ANATEL. “Anatel publica regras para a adaptação de concessão para autorização da telefonia fixa.” Available at: https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/anatel-publica-regras-para-a-adaptacao-de-concessao-para-autorizacao-da-telefonia-fixa. Access on: 03.20.2022.

  15. LGT. Article 19. “It is incumbent upon the Agency to adopt the necessary measures to serve the public interest and for the development of Brazilian telecommunications, acting with independence, impartiality, legality, impersonality and publicity, and especially: […] XII—issue norms and standards to be complied with by telecommunications service providers regarding the equipment they use; XIII—issue or recognize the certification of products, observing the standards and norms established by it; XIV—issue norms and standards that ensure compatibility, integrated operation and interconnection between networks, including terminal equipment.”

  16. BRAZIL. Decree n° 10.222/2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/decreto-n-10.222-de-5-de-fevereiro-de-2020-241828419. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  17. 1. National Cyber Security Governance; 2. Connected and secure universe: prevention and mitigation of cyber threats; 3. Strategic protection; 4. Transformer Axes, which encompass the normative dimension; 5. International dimension and strategic partnerships; 6. Research, development and innovation; 7. Education.

  18. Available at: http://www.participa.br/seguranca-cibernetica/estrategia-nacional-de-seguranca-cibernetica-e-ciber. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  19. BRAZIL. Estratégia Nacional de Segurança Cibernética. Available at: https://www.gov.br/governodigital/pt-br/estrategias-e-politicas-digitais/estrategia-nacional-de-seguranca-cibernetica. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  20. As provided for in the Annex of Federal Decree 10.222/2020. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2019-2022/2020/decreto/D10222.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  21. BRAZIL. Federal Decree n° 9.627/2018. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2018/Decreto/D9637.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  22. Article 6. The National Information Security Strategy will contain strategic actions and objectives related to information security, in line with public policies and programs of the Federal Government, and will be divided into the following modules, among others, to be defined at the time of the publication: I—cybersecurity; II—cyberdefense; III—security of critical infrastructures; IV—security of confidential information; and V—protection against data leakage.

    Single paragraph. The construction of the National Strategy for Information Security will have the broad participation of society and public bodies and entities.

  23. As provided in Article 5, item II, of the Federal Decree 9.637: Article 5. The bodies and entities of the federal public administration, within their scope of action, are responsible for: […] II—prepare its information security policy and internal information security rules, in compliance with the information security rules issued by the Institutional Security Office of the Presidency of the Republic. As also provided for in Article 2 of Federal Decree 10.222: Article 2 It will be an attribution of the bodies and entities of the federal public administration, within the scope of their powers, to carry out the managements that enable the implementation of the strategic actions foreseen in the E‑Ciber.

  24. BRAZIL. Gabinete de Segurança Institucional. Glossário de Segurança da Informação. Available at: https://www.gov.br/gsi/pt-br/assuntos/dsi/glossario-de-seguranca-da-informacao-1. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  25. BRAZIL. Ordinance 740, 21 December, 2020. Available at: https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/resolucao-n-740-de-21-de-dezembro-de-2020-296152776. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  26. Article 24. The Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructure Risk Management Technical Group (GT-Ciber) is hereby constituted, with the following attributions, among others established in this Regulation: […].

  27. Information available at: https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/assuntos/seguranca-cibernetica.

  28. Available at: https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/anatel-realiza-leilao-do-5g. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  29. According to the bidding documents and official information provided by ANATEL regarding 5G technology. Available at: https://www.gov.br/mcom/pt-br/noticias/2021/novembro/leilao-do-5g-confirma-expectativas-e-arrecada-r-46-7-bilhoes and at https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/anatel-aprova-o-edital-do-leilao-do-5g.

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  31. BRAZIL. Ministério das Comunicações. Capitais brasileiras estão preparadas para lançar a internet 5G. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.gov.br/mcom/pt-br/noticias/2022/Janeiro/capitais-brasileiras-estao-preparadas-para-lancar-a-internet-5g. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  32. BRAZIL. Law 13.116, de 20 de abril de 2015. Available at (Portuguese): http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2015/Lei/L13116.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  33. Article 11. The managing body or entity will issue the necessary licenses for the installation of telecommunications infrastructure referring to the right of way request within a maximum period of 60 days, counting from the date of its receipt. (Translated).

  34. BRAZIL. National Telecommunications Agency, Public Consultation 45/2019. Available at: https://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/consulta-publica-n-45-de-16-de-agosto-de-2019-211217278. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  35. Article 8. The sharing of telecommunications network infrastructure built in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 will be guaranteed to interested parties, through remuneration to the body or entity that owns the infrastructure, in compliance with the regulation of the telecommunications sector.

  36. Article 2 The provisions of this Law aim to promote and encourage investments in telecommunications network infrastructure, with the aim of, among others: […] V—encouraging the sharing of telecommunications network infrastructure.

  37. The items referring to infrastructure sharing were discussed during the 5G bidding procedure in ANATEL. The bid notice and its documents incorporated the infrastructure sharing possibility, for example, in Annex IV, item 7.2.1. 5G Bid Notice and Annex is available at: https://sei.anatel.gov.br/sei/modulos/pesquisa/md_pesq_documento_consulta_externa.php?eEP-wqk1skrd8hSlk5Z3rN4EVg9uLJqrLYJw_9INcO6OyRD8iqL9S9Xn8pP7_7nZL7eBIQWeOiWAZmPzrP88GsKp4NawWkp9n0q_6bMePRxnAscg5z5FRrlZQdkKAcHw.

  38. BRAZIL. Law n° 13.116/2015. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/Ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2015/Lei/L13116.htm. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  39. BRAZIL. National Telecommunications Agency. Rule 502/2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/portaria-n-502-de-1-de-setembro-de-2020-275654593#:~:text=de%202016%2C%20resolve%3A-,Article,24%20de%20junho%20de%202011. Access on: 02.25.2022.

  40. BRAZIL. Federal Government Security Office. Normative Instruction 4/2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/instrucao-normativa-n-4-de-26-de-marco-de-2020-250059468.

  41. BRAZIL. Ministry of Communications. Ordinance 1.924/2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/portaria-n-1.924/sei-mcom-de-29-de-janeiro-de-2021-301396768.

  42. ANATEL has a regulatory agenda in which updates on regulatory topics are formally addressed and assessed by the Agency. Available at (Portuguese): https://www.gov.br/anatel/pt-br/regulado/agenda-regulatoria/2021-2022.

  43. BRAZIL. National Telecommunications Agency. Ato 3151, de 12 de junho de 2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://sei.anatel.gov.br/sei/modulos/pesquisa/md_pesq_documento_consulta_externa.php?eEP-wqk1skrd8hSlk5Z3rN4EVg9uLJqrLYJw_9INcO6tc2nsvaR0yuZD1FaRFfN5lBSTcaiJtbONQiRzKp1T51JkZJetLP7Aywg6XDDVpEwS_9ojPFJGKinbyvI8a_sc.

  44. BRAZIL. National Telecommunications Agency. Ato 3152, de 12 de junho de 2020. Available at (Portuguese): https://sei.anatel.gov.br/sei/modulos/pesquisa/md_pesq_documento_consulta_externa.php?eEP-wqk1skrd8hSlk5Z3rN4EVg9uLJqrLYJw_9INcO4m3GsGtLCpnwR9o8Mdffx1k4zHWaxF4bYBKI4Pkv8TtIWJZBUuj61u9o37zLbbLIuivu3cOe4bY9Nxv6QeVyWt.

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Carapeto, R., Calil, A.L. Cybersecurity regulation in Brazil and Latin America: an overview. Int. Cybersecur. Law Rev. 3, 385–410 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1365/s43439-022-00055-w

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