Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 701–707 | Cite as

Plasma spray synthesis from precursors: Progress, issues, and considerations

  • B. G. Ravi
  • S. Sampath
  • R. Gambino
  • J. B. Parise
  • P. S. Devi
Reviewed Papers


Precursor plasma spray synthesis is an innovative and rapid method for making functional oxide ceramic coatings by starting from solution precursors and directly producing inorganic films. This emerging method utilizes molecularly mixed precursor liquids, which essentially avoids the handling and selection of powders, opening up new avenues for developing compositionally complex functional oxide coatings. Precursor plasma spray also offers excellent opportunities for exploring the nonequilibrium phase evolution during plasma spraying of multicomponent oxides from inorganic precursors. Although there have been efforts in this area since the 1980s and early 1990s with the goal of synthesizing nanoparticles, only recently has the work progressed in the area of functional systems. At the Center for Thermal Spray Research an integrated investigative strategy has been used to explore the benefits and limits of this synthesis strategy. Water- and alcohol-based sol/solution precursors derived from various chemical synthesis methods were used as feedstocks to deposit thin/thick films of spherical and nanostructured coatings of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), yttrium iron garnet, lanthanum strontium manganate and Zr-substituted yttrium titanates, and compositions of Y2O3-Al2O3 and their microstructural space centered around stoichiometric YAG. A detailed discussion of the salient features of the radiofrequency induction plasma spraying approach, the results obtained in the investigations to develop various functional oxide coatings, and process issues and challenges are presented.


ceramic coatings liquid precursor luminescent coatings magnetic properties microstructure thermal plasma spraying 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    F.F. Lange, Chemical Solution Routes to Single-Crystal Thin Films,Science, 1996,273, p 903–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.G. Levi, Metastability and Microstructure Evolution in the Synthesis of Inorganics From Precursors,Acta. Mater., 1998,46, p 787–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Boulos, Thermal Spray-Materials Synthesis by Thermal Spraying,Symposium K, MRS Fall Meeting, November 29–30, 1999 (Boston, MA) p 235–240Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Boulos and E. Pfender, Materials Processing with Thermal Plasmas,MRS Bull., 1996,21(8), 65–68Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Delbos, J. Fazilleau, J.F. Coudert, P. Fauchais, L. Bianchi, and K. Wittmann-Teneze, Plasma Spray Elaboration of Finely Structured YSZ Thin Coating by Liquid Suspension Injection,Thermal Spray 2003: Advancing the Science and Applying the Technology, B.R. Marple and C. Moreau, Ed., May 5–8, 2003 (Orlando, FL), ASM International, 2003, p 661–669Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Monterrubio-Badillo, H. Ageorges, T. Chartier, J.F. Coudert, and P. Fauchais, Preparation of LaMnO3 Perovskite Thin Films by Suspension Plasma Spraying for SOFC Cathodes,Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006,200, p 3743–3756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Karthikeyan, C.C. Berndt, J. Tikkanen, S. Reddy, and H. Herman, Plasma Spray Synthesis of Nanomaterial Powders and Deposits,Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1997,238, p 275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Karthikeyan, C.C. Berndt, S. Reddy, J.Y. Wang, A.H. King, and H. Herman, Nanomaterial Deposits Formed by DC Plasma Spraying of Liquid Feedstocks,J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1998,81, p 121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Bhatia, A. Ozturk, L. Xie, E.H. Jordan, B.M. Cetegen, M. Gell, X. Ma, and N.P. Padture, Mechanism of Ceramic Coating Deposition in Solution-Precursor Plasma Spray,J. Mater. Res., 2002,17, p 2363–2372Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.H. Jordan, L. Xie, X. Ma, M. Gell, N.P. Padture, B. Cetegen, A. Ozturk, J. Roth, T.D. Xiao, and P.E.C. Bryant, Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray,J. Thermal Spray Technol., 2004,13(1), p 57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Jadhav, N.P. Padture, F. Wu, E.H. Jordan, M. Gell, Thick Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings With High Durability Deposited Using Solution-Precursor Plasma Spray,Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005,405, p 313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Shanmugam, A. Hunt and D. Motley, Thin Films of Advanced Materials Via CCVD,Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 2002, p 36–41Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.S. Devi, J. Margolis, J.B. Parise, C.P. Grey, S. Sampath, H. Herman, and H.D. Gafney, Single Step Deposition of Eu-Doped Y2O3 Phosphor Coatings Through a Precursor Plasma Spraying Technique,J. Mater. Res., 2002,17, p 2771–2774Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.S. Devi, J. Margolis, H.M. Liu, C.P. Grey, S. Sampath, H. Herman, and J.B. Parise, Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Films Through a Precursor Plasma Spraying Technique,J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2001,84, p 1906–1908Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.S. Devi, Y. Lee, J. Margolis, J.B. Parise, S. Sampath, H. Herman, and J.C. Hanson, Comparison of Citrate-Nitrate Gel Combustion and Precursor Plasma Spray Processes for the Synthesis of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet,J. Mater. Res., 2002,17, p 2846–2851Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    X.Z. Guo, B.G. Ravi, P.S. Devi, J.C. Hanson, J. Margolies, R.J. Gambino, J. B. Parise, and S. Sampath, Synthesis of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) by Citrate Nitrate Gel Combustion and Precursor Plasma Spray Processes,J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2005,295, p 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    X.Z. Guo, B.G. Ravi, Q.Y. Yan, R.J. Gambino, S. Sampath, J. Margolies, and J.B. Parise, Phase Evolution and Magnetic Properties of Precursor Plasma Sprayed Yttrium Iron Garnet Coatings,Ceram. Int., 2005,32, p 61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.S. Gandhi and C.G. Levi, Phase Selection in Precursor-Derived Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and Related Al2O3-Y2O3 Compositions,J. Mater. Res., 2005,20, p 1017–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.H. Yu, P.S. Devi, L.H. Lewis, S. Sampath, J.B. Parise, and R.J. Gambino, Novel Synthesis and Magnetocaloric Assessment of Functional Oxide Perovskites,Mater Sci. Eng. B, 2003,97, p 245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. G. Ravi
    • 1
  • S. Sampath
    • 1
  • R. Gambino
    • 1
  • J. B. Parise
    • 2
  • P. S. Devi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCenter for Thermal Spray ResearchUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geosciences and ChemistryState University of New YorkStony Brook
  3. 3.Electroceramics DivisionCentral Glass and Ceramic Research InstituteKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations