Skip to main content

Process temperature/velocity-hardness-wear relationships for high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed nanostructured and conventional cermet coatings


High-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spraying of WC-12Co was performed using a feedstock in which the WC phase was either principally in the micron size range (conventional) or was engineered to contain a significant fraction of nanosized grains (multimodal). Three different HVOF systems and a wide range of spray parameter settings were used to study the effect of in-flight particle characteristics on coating properties. A process window with respect to particle temperature was identified for producing coatings with the highest resistance to dry abrasion. Although the use of a feedstock containing a nanosized WC phase produced harder coatings, there was little difference in the abrasion resistance of the best-performing conventional and multimodal coatings. However, there is a potential benefit in using the multimodal feedstock due to higher deposition efficiencies and a larger processing window.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. W.D. Kingery, H.K. Bowen, and D.R. Uhlmann, Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1976, p 739

  2. A.H. Cottrell, The Mechanical Properties of Matter, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., 1981, p 326–332

  3. Idem, ibid., 345

  4. E.H. Jordan, M. Gell, Y.H. Sohn, D. Goberman, L. Shaw, S. Jiang, M. Wang, T.D. Xiao, Y. Wang, and P. Strutt, Fabrication and Evaluation of Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured Alumina-Titania Coatings with Superior Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, Vol 301, 2001, p 80–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. J. He and J.M. Schoenung, A Review on Nanostructured WC-Co-Coatings, Surf. Coat Technol., Vol 157, 2002, p 72–79

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. H. Chen, X. Zhou, and C. Ding, Investigation of the Thermomechanical Properties of a Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured Zirconia Coating, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., Vol 23, 2003, p 1449–1455

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. R.S. Lima, B.R. Marple, K.A. Khor, H. Li, and P. Cheang, Mechanical Properties, Microstructural Characteristics and In Vitro Behavior of APS-Sprayed Nanostructured and Conventional Hydroxyapatite Coatings, Thermal Spray 2004: Advances in Technology and Application, May 10–12 2004 (Osaka, Japan), ASM International, 2004, p 157–162

  8. Y. Qiao, Y. Liu, and T.E. Fischer, Sliding and Abrasive Wear Resistance of Thermal-Sprayed WC-Co Coatings, J. Thermal Spray Technol., Vol 10 (No. 1), 2001, p 118–125

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. B.R. Marple and R.S. Lima, Process Temperature-Hardness-Wear Relationships for HVOF-Sprayed Nanostructured and Conventional Cermet Coatings, Thermal Spray 2003: Advancing the Science and Applying the Technology, B.R. Marple and C. Moreau, Ed., May 5–8, 2003 (Orlando, FL), ASM International, 2003, p 273–282

  10. “Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus,” G 65–91, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, 1994, p 246–258

  11. S. Dallaire, M. Dufour, and B. Gauthier, Characterization of Wear Damage in Coatings by Optical Profilometry, J. Thermal Spray Technol., Vol 2 (No. 4), 1993, p 363–368

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. H.L. de Villiers Lovelock, Powder/Processing/Structure Relationships in WC-Co Thermal Spray Coatings: A Review of the Published Literature, J. Thermal Spray Technol., Vol 7 (No. 3), 1998, p 357–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. C. Verdon, A. Karmimi, and J.-L. Martin, A Study of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Thermally Sprayed Tungsten Carbide Coatings: Part 1. Microstructures, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, Vol 246, 1998, p 11–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Additional information

The original version of this article was published as part of the ASM Proceedings, Thermal Spray 2003: Advancing the Science and Applying the Technology, International Thermal Spray Conference (Orlando, FL), May 5–8, 2003, Basil R. Marple and Christian Moreau, Ed., ASM International, 2003.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Marple, B.R., Lima, R.S. Process temperature/velocity-hardness-wear relationships for high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed nanostructured and conventional cermet coatings. J Therm Spray Tech 14, 67–76 (2005).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: