Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 753–757 | Cite as

Reinforced ceramic dies for superplastic forming operations

  • Daniel G. Sanders
Superplastic Forming


Ceramic dies have been developed to meet the need for a dimensionally stable tool, which can withstand the temperatures (425 to 950 °C) and high forming pressures (up to 7 MPa) that are required for superplastic forming (SPF), superplastic forming with diffusion bonding (SPF/DB), and hot sizing of metal parts. With the improvements that have been made to strengthen fused silica based ceramics, the performance of ceramic tools is slowly closing in on meeting the same forming complexity as corrosion-resistant steel (CRES) dies can achieve. Boeing has successfully superplastically formed jet engine wide chord fan blades using ceramic dies, and many production aircraft parts are being built with Boeing’s patented ceramic die technology.


aerospace automotive ceramic ceramic tooling die forming diffusion bonding hot forming manufacturing technology rapid prototyping rebar reinforcement superplastic forming SPF SPF/DB 


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel G. Sanders
    • 1
  1. 1.The Boeing Company, Materials & Process Technology and Phantom WorksSeattle

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