Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 597–601 | Cite as

Effect of austenitization on austempering of copper alloyed ductile iron

  • Uma Batra
  • S. Ray
  • S. R. Prabhakar


A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austempered at a fixed austempering temperature of 330 °C for a fixed austempering time of 60 min after austenitization at 850 °C for different austenitization periods of 60, 90, and 120 min. The austempering process was repeated after changing austenitization temperature to 900 °C. The effect of austenitization temperature and time was studied on the carbon content and its distribution in the austenite after austenitization. The effect of austenitization parameters was also studied on austempered microstructure, structural parameters like volume fraction of austenite, X γ , carbon content C γ , and X γ C γ , and bainitic ferrite needle size, d α after austempering. The average carbon content of austenite increases linearly with austenitization time and reaches a saturation level. Higher austenitization temperature results in higher carbon content of austenite. As regards the austempered structure, the lowering austenitization temperature causes significant refinement and more uniform distribution of austempered structure, and a decrease in the volume fraction of retained austenite.


alloyed ductile iron (ADI) austenization copper 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Grech: “An Update on Austempered Ductile Iron” in International Conference on Mechanical Behaviour of Ductile Cast Iron and Other Cast Metals, Kitakyushu, Japan, Aug. 1993, pp. 18–25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.A. Blackmore and R.A. Harding: “The Effects of Metallurgical Process Variables on the Properties of Austempered Ductile Iron” in Proc. 1 st Int. Conf. on ADI, 1984, pp. 117–34.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.J. Moore, T.N. Rouns, and K.B. Rundman: “The Relationship Between Microstructure and Tensile Properties in ADI,” AFS Trans., 1987, pp. 765–74.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Aranjbal, I. Gutierrez, J.M. Rodriguez-Ibabe, and J.J. Urocla: “Influence of Heat Treatments on Microstructure and Toughness of Austempered Ductile Iron,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 1992, (11), pp. 263–73.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Dorazil, B. Barta, E. Munsterova, L. Stransky, and A. Huvar: “High-Strength Bainitic Ductile Cast Iron,” AFS Int., Cast. Met. J., 1982, 2(7), pp. 52–62.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.B. Gundlach and J.F. Janowak: “Austempered Ductile Iron Combines Strength With Toughness and Ductility,” Met. Prog., 1988, pp. 19–26.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Kovacs: “Austempered Ductile Iron Fact and Fiction,” Modern Cast., 1990, pp. 38–41.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Ali and R. Elliott: Mater. Sci. Technol., 1996, 12, p. 679.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Grech and J.M. Young: “Influence of Austempering Temperature on the Characteristics of Austempered Ductile Iron Alloyed with Cu and Ni,” AFS Trans., 1990, 98, p. 345.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Murakami, R. Kobayashi, and T. Owadano: Jrn. of JFS, 1984, 12(56), pp. 746–51.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.N. Rouns, D.J. Moore, and K.B. Rundman: “On the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Austempered Ductile Iron,” AFS Trans., 1984, 92, pp. 815–40.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Ogi, A. Sawamoto, Y.C. Jin, and C.R. Loper: “A Study of Some Aspects of the Austenitization Process of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron,” AFS Trans., 1998, 2, pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.D. Cullity: Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1956, pp. 390–96.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.D. Mills: “Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron—Its Development and Future,” Br. Foundryman, 1972, 65, p. 34.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K.L. Hayrynen, D.J. Moore, and K.B. Rundman: Private communication, 1993.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.C. Voigt and C.R. Loper: “Austempered Ductile Iron—Process Control and Quality Assurance,” J. Heat Treat., 1984, 4(3), p. 291.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uma Batra
    • 1
  • S. Ray
    • 2
  • S. R. Prabhakar
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Metallurgical EngineeringPunjab Engineering College ChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical EngineeringIIT RoorkeeIndia
  3. 3.Rayat Engineering CollegePunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations