Advertisement

The vegetation and climate change during Neocene and Early Quaternary in Jiuxi Basin, China

  • Yuzhen MaEmail author
  • Xiaomin Fang
  • Jijun Li
  • Fuli Wu
  • Jun Zhang
Article

Abstract

Sporopollen record in the Laojunmiao Section at Yumen in the Hexi Corridor foreland depression at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau revealed that during the period of 13.0–11.15 Ma the ecological environment of the Jiuxi Basin is characterized by steppe vegetation and a semi-moist climate. During 11.16–8.60 Ma prevailed forests of cypress and a still warmer, moister climate; steppe vegetation and dry climate began probably at about 8.6 Ma. Although aridification had been relaxed time and again during 8.40–6.93 Ma (forest-steppe, warm-semi-moist), 6.64–5.67 Ma (open-forest and steppe, warmer-semi-moist) and 5.42–4.96 Ma (steppe, semi-arid), the climate in the region became drier and drier in response to the fre-quent occurrence of aridity during 6.93–6.64 Ma (steppe, semi-arid), 5.67–5.42 Ma (de-sert-steppe, arid), 3.66–3.30 Ma (desert-steppe, arid) and 2.56–2.21 Ma (desert, arid). Perhaps the important findings of our study are the notable expansion of drought-enduring plants during 3.66–3.30 Ma and about 2.56 Ma and the replacement of vegetation by vast arid desert.

Keywords

Tibetan Plateau Hexi Corridor sporopollen record ecological environment vegetation evolution aridification 

References

  1. 1.
    Song, Y. G., Fang, X. M., Li, J. J. et al., The late Cenozoic uplift of Liupan Shan, China, Science in China, Ser. D, 2001, 44(Supp.): 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guo, Z. T., Peng, S. Z., Hao, Q. Z. et al., Late Tertiary development of aridification in northwestern China: Link with the Arctic ice-sheet formation and Tibetan uplifts, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 6: 556–566.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun, Y. B., An, Z. S., History and variability of Asian interior aridity recorded by eolian flux in the Chinese Loess Plateau during the past 7 Ma, Science in China, Ser. D, 2002, 45(5): 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    An, Z. S., Kutzbach, J. E., Prell, S. C., Evolution of Asian monsoons and phrased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau since Late Miocene times, Nature, 2002, 411: 62–66.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guo, Z. T., Ruddiman, W. F., Hao, Q. Z. et al., Onset of Asian desertification by 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China, Natue, 2002, 416: 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rea, D. K., Snoeckx, H., Joseph, L. H., Late Cenozoic eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the Northern Hemisphere, Paleoceanography, 1998, 13(3): 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Quade, J., Cerling, T. E., Bowman, J. R., Development of the Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecologic shift in the latest Miocene of northern Pakistan, Nature, 1989, 342: 163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quade, J., Cater, J. M. L., Ojha, T. P. et al., Late Miocene environmental change in Nepal and the northern Indian subcontinent: Stable isotpic evoidence from paleosols, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1995, 107: 1381–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pagani, M., Freeman, K. H., Arthur, M. A., Late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the expansion of C4 grasses, Science, 1999, 285: 876–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma, Y. Z., Li, J. J., Fang, X. M., A record of polynoflora and climatic evolution of Red Bed between 30.6 to 5.0 MaBP, LinxiaBasin, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1998, 43(3): 301–304.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cande, S. C., Kent, D. V., Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995, 100(B4): 6093–6095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shi, Z. T., Ye, Y. G., Zhao, Z. J. et al., ESR dating of late Cenozoic molassic deposits in the Jiuxi Basin, Science in China, Ser. D, 2001, 44(Supp.): 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fang, X. M., Zhao, Z. J., Li, J. J. et al., Magnetostratigraphy of the late Cenozoic Laojunmiao anticline in the northern Qilian Mts. and its implication on the northern Tibet uplift, Science in China, Ser. D (in Chinese), 2004, 34(2): 97–106.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu, Z. Y., Vegetation of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li, W. Y., Quaternary Vegetation and Environment of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1998, 1–50.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu, Q. H., Wu, C., Meng, L. Y. et al., Pollen assemblage feature of different geomorphologic units and different sedimentary facies, North China Plain, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1994, 39(19): 1792–1795.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, W. Y., Yan, S., Research of Quaternary Polynology, Chaiwopu Basin ((ed. Shi, Y. F.), Quaternary Climatic Change and Hydrologic Geological Events of Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang (in Chinese), Beijing: Oceanic Press, 1990, 46–72.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, W. Y., The relation between pollen and plant of Abies, and succession of forest vegetation, Bashan region of Shennongjia, Acta Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 1991, 46(2): 186–193.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yan, S., Xu, Y. Q., Spore-pollen association in surface-soil in Altay, Xinjiang, Arid Land Research (in Chinese), 1989, 1: 26–33.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yan, S., The discussion on the pollen of pine family in surface soil in Xinjiang, Arid Land Geography (in Chinese), 1993, 16(3): 1–9.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Qinghai Petroleum Administration and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeolitology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A Research on Tertiary Palynology from the Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province (in Chinese), Beijing: Petroleum Industry Publishing House, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu, G. G., Lepold, E. B., Palaeoecology of a Miocene flora from the Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, Northern East China, Palynology, 1992, 16: 187–212.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shi, N., Cao, J. X., Lars, K. S., Late Cenozoic vegetational history and the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in the Yushe basin, S. E. Shanxi, China, Grana, 1993, 32: 260–271.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Song, Z. C., Cao, L., Zhou, H. Y. et al., Early Tertiary Spores and Pollen Grains From the Coastal Region of Bohai (in Chinese), Beijing: Science press, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Song, Z. C., Zhen, Y. H., Liu, J. L. et al., Sporepollen Association of Cretaceous and Tertiary, Jiangsu Province (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1981.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Song, Z. C., Zhen, Y. H., Li, M. Y. et al., Fossil Spores and Pollen of China (1): Late of Cretaceous-Tertiary Spores and Pollen (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, F. S, Chien, N. F., Zhang, Y. L. et al., Pollen Flora of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erdtman, G., An Introduction to Pollen Analysis, Waltham: The Chronica Botanica Company, 1954, 129–145.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moore, P. D., Webb, J. A., Pollen Analysis, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991, 10–38.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhu, G. L., Origin, differentiation, and geographic distribution of the Chenopodiaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 34(5): 486–504.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weng, C. Y, Sun, X. J., Chen, Y. S., Numerical characteristics of pollen assemblages of surface samples from the west Kunlun Mountains, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1993, 35(1): 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yan, S., Quaternary sporepollen assemblage feature and succession of vegetation, Xinjiang, Arid Land Geography (in Chinese), 1991, 2: 1–8.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huang, C. X., A study on pollen in surface soil from the western Xizang, Arid Land Geography (in Chinese), 1993, 16(4): 75–83.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, F. Y., Song, C. Q., Sun X. J., Study on surface pollen in middle Inner Mongolia, China, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 38(11): 902–909.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    El Moslinmny, A., The ecological significance of common nonarboreal pollen example from dry land of the Middle East, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyn., 1990, 64: 343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pearson, P. N., Palmer, M. R., Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years, Nature, 2000, 406: 695–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jin, X. C., Zhou, Z. Y., Wang, P. X., Ocean Drilling Program and Earth Sciences in China (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shi, Y. F., Li, J. J., Li, B. Y. et al., Uplift and environmental evolution of Tibet Plateau ((eds. Sun, H. L., Zheng, D.), The Formation, Evolution and Development of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (in Chinese), Guangzhou: Guangdong Provincial Technologic Press, 1998, 73–138.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li, J. J., Wen, S. X., Zhang, Q. S. et al., A discussion on the period, amplitude and type of the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Sci. in China, Ser. B (in Chinese), 1979, (6): 608–616.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhong, D. L., Ding, L., Rising process of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and its mechanism, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(4): 369–376.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuzhen Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaomin Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jijun Li
    • 1
  • Fuli Wu
    • 1
  • Jun Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems and College of Resources and EnvironmentLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary GeologyInstitute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations