Demography

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 79–94 | Cite as

Immigrant residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1990–2000

  • John Iceland
  • Melissa Scopilliti
Article

Abstract

This paper examines the extent of spatial assimilation among immigrants of different racial and ethnic origins. We use restricted data from the 1990 and 2000 censuses to calculate the levels of dissimilarity by race and Hispanic origin, nativity, and year of entry, and then run multivariate models to examine these relationships. The findings provide broad support for spatial assimilation theory. Foreign-born Hispanics, Asians, and blacks are more segregated from native-born non-Hispanic whites than are the U.S.-born of these groups. The patterns for Hispanics and Asians can be explained by the average characteristics of the foreign-born that are generally associated with higher levels of segregation, such as lower levels of income, English language ability, and homeownership. We also find that immigrants who have been in the United States for longer periods are generally less segregated than new arrivals, and once again, much of this difference can be attributed to the characteristics of immigrants. However, patterns also vary across groups. Levels of segregation are much higher for black immigrants than for Asian, Hispanic, and white immigrants. In addition, because black immigrants are, on average, of higher socioeconomic status than native-born blacks, such characteristics do not help explain their very high levels of segregation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alba, R. and V. Nee. 2003. Remaking the American Mainstream. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bean, F.D. and G. Stevens. 2003. America’s Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Bobo, L. and C. Zubrinsky. 1996. “Attitudes Toward Residential Integration: Perceived Status Differences, Mere In-Group Preference, or Racial Prejudice?” Social Forces 74:883–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Charles, C.Z. 2001. “Processes of Residential Segregation.” Pp. 217–71 in Urban Inequality: Evidence From Four Cities, edited by A. O’Connor, C. Tilly, and L.D. Bobo. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. — 2003. “Dynamics of Racial Residential Segregation.” Annual Review of Sociology 29: 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, W.A.V. 2007. “Race, Class, and Place.” Urban Affairs Review 42:295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crowder, K. 1999. “Residential Segregation of West Indians in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan Area: The Roles of Race and Ethnicity.” International Migration Review 33:79–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denton, N. and D.S. Massey. 1989. “Racial Identity Among Caribbean Hispanics: The Effect of Double Minority Status on Residential Segregation.” American Sociological Review 54:790–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farley, R., C. Steeh, M. Krysan, T. Jackson, and K. Reeves. 1994. “Stereotypes and Segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit Area.” American Journal of Sociology 100:750–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freeman, L. 2002. “Does Spatial Assimilation Work for Black Immigrants in the US?” Urban Studies 39:1983–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frey, W.H. 2003. “Metropolitan Magnets for International and Domestic Migrants.” The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Living Cities Census Series (October).Google Scholar
  12. Frey, W.H. and R. Farley. 1996. “Latino, Asian, and Black Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Are Multiethnic Metros Different?” Demography 33:35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frey, W.H. and D. Myers. 2002. “Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study in Cities and Metropolitan Areas.” Working paper. Fannie Mae Foundation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. Glaeser, E.L. and J. Vigdor. 2001. “Racial Segregation in the 2000 Census: Promising News.” Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.brook.edu/es/urban/census/glaeser.pdfGoogle Scholar
  15. Goering, J.M. and R. Wienk, eds. 1996. Mortgage Lending, Racial Discrimination and Federal Policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hobbs, F. and N. Stoops. 2002. “Demographic Trends in the 20th Century.” U.S. Census Bureau, Census Special Report, CENSR-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  17. Iceland, J., C. Sharpe, and E. Steinmetz. 2005. “Class Differences in African American Residential Patterns in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1990–2000.” Social Science Research 34:252–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iceland, J. and E. Steinmetz. 2003. “The Effects of Using Census Block Groups Instead of Census Tracts When Examining Residential Housing Patterns.” Working paper. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/resseg/pdf/ unit_of_analysis.pdfGoogle Scholar
  19. Iceland, J., D.H. Weinberg, and E. Steinmetz. 2002. Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980–2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Census Special Report, CENSR-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  20. Iceland, J. and R. Wilkes. 2006. “Does Socioeconomic Status Matter? Race, Class, and Residential Segregation.” Social Problems 52:248–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, R.C. 2003. “The Segregation of Ancestry Groups in San Antonio.” The Social Science Journal 40:213–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, N.A. and A. Symens Smith. 2001. The Two or More Races Population: 2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief, C2KBR/01-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  23. Lewis Mumford Center. 2001. “Ethnic Diversity Grows, Neighborhood Integration Lags Behind.” Report by the Lewis Mumford Center, University at Albany, April 3, 2001 (revised December 18, 2001).Google Scholar
  24. Logan, J., B. Stults, and R. Farley. 2004. “Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change.” Demography 41:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Massey, D.S. 1985. “Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Theoretical Synthesis and Empirical Review.” Sociology and Social Research 69:315–50.Google Scholar
  26. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. 1988a. “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.” Social Forces 67:281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. — 1988b. “Suburbanization and Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas.” American Journal of Sociology 94:592–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. —. 1989. “Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five Dimensions.” Demography 26:373–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. —. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Meyer, S.G. 2000. As Long As They Don’t Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Portes, A. and M. Zhou. 1993. “The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants Among Post-1965 Immigrant Youth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530:74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ross, S.L. and M. Austin Turner. 2005. “Housing Discrimination in Metropolitan America: Explaining Changes Between 1989 and 2000.” Social Problems 52:152–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singer, A. 2004. The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways. The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. The Living Cities Census Series, February.Google Scholar
  34. South, S.J., K. Crowder, and E. Chavez. 2005a. “Migration and Spatial Assimilation Among U.S. Latinos: Classic Versus Segmented Trajectories.” Demography 42:497–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. —. 2005b. “Geographic Mobility and Spatial Assimilation Among U.S. Latino Immigrants.” International Migration Review 39:577–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. St. John, C. and R. Clymer. 2000. “Racial Residential Segregation by Level of Socioeconomic Status.” Social Science Quarterly 81:701–15.Google Scholar
  37. Turner, M.A. and S.L. Ross. 2003. Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: Phase 2— Asians and Pacific Islanders of the HDS 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  38. Turner, M.A., S.L. Ross, G. Galster, and J. Yinger. 2002. Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: National Results From Phase 1 of the Housing Discrimination Study (HDS). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  39. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Census of Population and Housing. Restricted-Use Microdata Files.Google Scholar
  40. Waters, M.C. 1990. Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Berkeley, CA: California University Press.Google Scholar
  41. White, M.J. and J.E. Glick. 1999. “The Impact of Immigration on Residential Segregation.” Pp. 345–72 in Immigration and Opportunity, edited by F.D. Bean and S. Bell-Rose. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Wilkes, R. and J. Iceland. 2004. “Hypersegregation in the Twenty-First Century: An Update and Analysis.” Demography 41:23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yinger, J. 1995. Closed Doors, Opportunities Lost: The Continuing Costs of Housing Discrimination. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  44. Zhou, M. 1999. “Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on the New Second Generation.” Pp. 196–211 in The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience, edited by C. Hirschman, P. Kasinitz, and J. DeWind. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Iceland
    • 1
  • Melissa Scopilliti
    • 2
  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentUniversity of MarylandCollege Park
  2. 2.Sociology DepartmentUniversity of MarylandCollege Park

Personalised recommendations