, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 23–36 | Cite as

Hypersegregation in the twenty-first century

  • Rima Wilkes
  • John Iceland


We used metropolitan-level data from the 2000 U.S. census to analyze the hypersegregation of four groups from whites: blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. While blacks were hypersegregated in 29 metropolitan areas and Hispanics were hypersegregated in 2, Asians and Native Americans were not hypersegregated in any. There were declines in the number of metropolitan areas with black hypersegregation, although levels of segregation experienced by blacks remained significantly higher than those of the other groups, even after a number of factors were controlled. Indeed, although socioeconomic differences among the groups explain some of the difference in residential patterns more generally, they have little association with hypersegregation in particular, indicating the overarching salience of race in shaping residential patterns in these highly divided metropolitan areas.


Metropolitan Area Census Tract Residential Segregation Ethnic Enclave Residential Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alba, R.D., J.R. Logan, and K. Crowder. 1997. “White Ethnic Neighborhoods and Assimilation: The Greater New York Region, 1980–1990.” Social Forces 75:883–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Darden, J.T. 1987. “Socioeconomic Status and Racial Residential Segregation: Blacks and Hispanics in Chicago.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 8:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darden, J.T. and S.M. Kamel. 2000. “Black Residential Segregation in the City and Suburbs of Detroit: Does Socioeconomic Status Matter?” Journal of Urban Affairs 22:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Denton, N. 1994. “Are African Americans Still Hypersegregated?” Pp. 49–81 in Residential Apartheid: The American Legacy, edited by R. Bullard, C. Lee, and J.E. Grigsby. Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Afro-American Studies.Google Scholar
  5. Farley, R. and W.H. Frey. 1994. “Changes in the Segregation of Whites From Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society.” American Sociological Review 59: 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fong, E. 1994. “Residential Proximity Among Racial Groups in U.S. and Canadian Neighborhoods.” Urban Affairs Quarterly 30:285–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fong, E. and K. Shibuya. 2000. “The Spatial Separation of the Poor in Canadian Cities.” Demography 37:449–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frey, W.H. and R. Farley. 1996. “Latino, Asian, and Black Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Are Multiethnic Metros Different?” Demography 33:35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frey, W.H. and D. Myers. 2002. “Neighborhood Segregation in Single-Race and Multirace America: A Census 2000 Study in Cities and Metropolitan Areas.” Working Paper. Washington, DC: Fannie Mae Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Galster, G., F. Freiberg, and D.L. Houk. 1987. “Racial Differentials in Real Estate Advertising Practices: An Exploratory Case Study.” Journal of Urban Affairs 9:199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glaeser, E.L. and J. Vigdor. 2001. “Racial Segregation in the 2000 Census: Promising News.” Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institution. Available on-line at Scholar
  12. Gotham, K.F. 1998. “Race, Mortgage Lending and Loan Rejections in a U.S. City.” Sociological Focus 31:391–405.Google Scholar
  13. Grieco, E. and R.C. Cassidy. 2001. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-1, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  14. Iceland, J., D.H. Weinberg, and E. Steinmetz. 2002. Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United States: 1980–2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Census Special Report, CENSR-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  15. Krivo, L.J. and R.L. Kaufman. 1999. “How Low Can It Go: Declining Black-White Segregation in a Multiethnic Context.” Demography 36:93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewis Mumford Center, University at Albany. 2001. “Ethnic Diversity Grows, Neighborhood Integration Lags Behind.” Available on-line at WPreport/MumfordReport.pdfGoogle Scholar
  17. Logan, J. 2001. “The New Ethnic Enclaves in America’s Suburbs.” Report by the Lewis Mumford Center, University at Albany. Available on-line at SuburbanReport/page1.htmlGoogle Scholar
  18. Logan, J. and R.D. Alba. 1995. “Who Lives in Affluent Suburbs? Racial Differences in Eleven Metropolitan Regions.” Sociological Focus 28:353–64.Google Scholar
  19. Logan, J., B. Stults, and R. Farley. 2004. “Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change.” Demography 41:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Massey, D.S. 2001. “Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Conditions in U.S. Metropolitan Areas.” Pp. 389–482 in America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, edited by N. Smelser, W.J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  21. Massey, D.S. and B. Bitterman. 1985. “Explaining the Paradox of Puerto Rican Segregation.” Social Forces 64:307–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. 1985. “Spatial Assimilation as a Socioeconomic Outcome.” American Sociological Review 50:94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. —. 1988. “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.” Social Forces 67:281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. —. 1989. “Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five Dimensions.” Demography 26:373–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. —. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Massey, D.S. and B.P. Mullan. 1984. “Processes of Hispanic and Black Spatial Assimilation.” American Journal of Sociology 89:836–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Massey, D.S., M.J. White, and V. Phua. 1996. “The Dimensions of Segregation Revisited.” Sociological Methods and Research 25:172–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singer, A., S. Friedman, I. Cheung, and M. Price. 2001. “The World in a Zip Code: Greater Washington, D.C. as a New Region of Immigration.” Policy Report. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Available on-line at Scholar
  29. Snipp, C.M. 1992. “Sociological Perspectives on America Indians.” Annual Review of Sociology 18:351–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. St. John, C. and R. Clymer. 2000. “Racial Residential Segregation by Level of Socioeconomic Status.” Social Science Quarterly 81:701–15.Google Scholar
  31. White, M.J., A.E. Biddlecom, and S. Guo. 1993. “Immigration, Naturalization, and Residential Assimilation Among Asian Americans in 1980.” Social Forces 72:93–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. White, M.J., E. Fong, and Q. Cai. 2003. “The Segregation of Asian-Origin Groups in the United States and Canada.” Social Science Research 32:148–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilkes, R. 2003. “The Residential Segregation of Native Americans in U.S. Metropolitan Areas.” Sociological Focus 36:127–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rima Wilkes
    • 1
  • John Iceland
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and SociologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Sociology DepartmentUniversity of MarylandCollege Park

Personalised recommendations