Demography

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 1–22 | Cite as

Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: two decades of change

  • John R. Logan
  • Brian J. Stults
  • Reynolds Farley
Article

Abstract

Data from Census 2000 show that black-white segregation declined modestly at the national level after 1980, while Hispanic and Asian segregation rose in most metropolitan areas. Changes that may have produced greater changes for blacks proved to have insignificant effects: there was no net shift of the black population toward less-segregated areas, segregation at the metropolitan level did not decline more in areas where the incomes of blacks came closer to the incomes of whites over time, and the emergence of more multiethnic metropolises had no impact. As in the past, declines were centered in the South and West and in areas with smaller black populations. Increases in Hispanic and Asian segregation in individual metropolitan areas were counterbalanced by a net movement of these two groups toward areas of lower segregation. These increases were associated especially with the more rapid growth in the Hispanic and Asian populations. Hispanic segregation increased more in regions where group members had declining incomes relative to the incomes of whites and included a growing share of immigrants.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alba, R.D., J.R. Logan, and B.J. Stults. 2000. “How Segregated Are Middle-Class African Americans?” Social Problems 47:543–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blalock, H.M. 1967. Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  3. Charles, C. Zubrinsky. 2000. “Residential Segregation in Los Angeles.” Pp. 167–219 in Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles, edited by L.D. Bobo, M.L. Oliver, J.H. Johnston, Jr., and A. Valenzuela, Jr. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. —. 2001. “Processes of Racial Residential Segregation.” Pp. 217–71 in Urban Inequality: Evidence From Four Cities, edited by A. O’Connor, C. Tilly, and L.D. Bobo. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Cheng, L. and P.Q. Yang. 1996. “Asians: The ‘Model Minority’ Deconstructed.” Pp. 305–344 in Ethnic Los Angeles, edited by R. Waldinger and M. Bozorgmehr. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Cutler, D.M., E.L. Glaeser, and J.L. Vigdor. 1999. “The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto.” Journal of Political Economy 107:455–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Darden, J.T. and S.M. Kamel. 2000. “Black Residential Segregation in the City and Suburbs of Detroit: Does Socioeconomic Status Matter?” Journal of Urban Affairs 22(1):1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denton, N.A. and D.S. Massey. 1988. “Residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians by Socioeconomic Status and Generation.” Social Science Quarterly 69:797–817.Google Scholar
  9. Duncan, O.D. and B. Duncan. 1955. “A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Measures.” American Sociological Review 20:210–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellen, I. Gould. 2000. Sharing America’s Neighborhoods: The Prospects for Stable Integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Farley, R. 1977. “Trends in Racial Inequalities: Have the Gains of the 1960s Disappeared in the 1970s?” American Sociological Review 42:189–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farley, R., E.L. Fielding, and M. Krysan. 1997. “The Residential Preferences of Blacks and Whites: A Four-Metropolis Analysis.” Housing Policy Debate 8:763–800.Google Scholar
  13. Farley, R. and W.H. Frey. 1994. “Changes in the Segregation of Whites From Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Towards a More Integrated Society.” American Sociological Review 59: 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frey, W.H. and R. Farley. 1996. “Latino, Asian, and Black Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Are Multiethnic Metros Different?” Demography 33:35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Good, D.L. 1989. Orvie: The Dictator of Dearborn: The Rise and Reign of Orville L. Hubbard. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Iceland, J., D.H. Weinberg, and E. Steinmetz. 2002. Racial and Ethnic Segregation in the United States, 1980–2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Series CENSR-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  17. Jakubs, J.F. 1986. “Recent Racial Segregation in U.S. SMSAs.” Urban Geography 7: 146–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson, R. and R. Farley. 1985. “On the Statistical Significance of the Index of Dissimilarity.” Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association. Washington, DC: American Statistical Association.Google Scholar
  19. Keating, W.D. 1994. The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Krivo, L.J. and R.L. Kaufman. 1999. “How Low Can It Go? Declining Black-White Segregation in a Multiethnic Context.” Demography 36:93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewis Mumford Center, University at Albany. 2002. “Metropolitan Racial and Ethnic Change— 2000.” Available on-line at http://www.albany.edu/mumford/censusGoogle Scholar
  22. Logan, J.R., R.D. Alba, and S.-Y. Leung. 1996. “Minority Access to White Suburbs: A Multiregional Comparison.” Social Forces 74:851–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Logan, J.R., R.D. Alba, and W. Zhang. 2002. “Immigrant Enclaves and Ethnic Communities in New York and Los Angeles.” American Sociological Review 67:299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Massey, D.S. 1985. “Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Theoretical Synthesis and Empirical Review.” Sociology and Social Science Research 69:315–50.Google Scholar
  25. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. 1987. “Trends in the Residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians: 1970–1980.” American Sociological Review 52:802–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. —. 1988. “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.” Social Forces 67:281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. —. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Massey, D.S. and M.J. Fischer. 1999. “Does Rising Income Bring Integration? New Results for Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 1990.” Social Science Research 28:316–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Massey, D.S. and A.B. Gross. 1991. “Explaining Trends in Racial Segregation, 1970–1980.” Urban Affairs Quarterly 27:13–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ortiz, V. 1996. “The Mexican-Origin Population: Permanent Working Class or Emerging Middle Class?” Pp. 247–78 in Ethnic Los Angeles, edited by R. Waldinger and M. Bozorgmehr. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Patterson, O. 1997. The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s “Racial” Crisis. Washington, DC: Civitas/Counterpoint.Google Scholar
  32. Population Studies Center, University of Michigan. 2003. “Racial Residential Segregation: Census 2000 Findings.” Available on-line at http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/residentialsegregationGoogle Scholar
  33. Saltman, J. 1990. Neighborhood Stabilization: A Fragile Movement. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  34. Schuman, H., C. Steeh, L. Bobo, and M. Krysan. 1998. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Social Science Data Analysis Network, University of Michigan. 2001. “Census Scope: Your Portal to Census 2000 Data.” Available on-line at www.censusscope.orgGoogle Scholar
  36. St. John, C. and R. Clymer. 2000. “Racial Residential Segregation by Level of Socioeconomic Status.” Social Science Quarterly 81:701–15.Google Scholar
  37. Taeuber, K. and A. Taeuber. 1965. Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. Thernstrom, S. and A. Thernstrom. 1997. America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  39. U. S. v. City of Parma, 1981. 494 F. Supp.Google Scholar
  40. U.S. Census Bureau. 1992. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3A. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  41. —. 1993. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 4A. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  42. —. 2001a. Census of Population and Housing, 2000: Public Law (P.L.) 94-171 Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  43. —. 2001b. Census of Population and Housing, 2000: Summary File 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  44. U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. “Historical Income Data.” Available on-line at http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/ histinc/histinctb.htmlGoogle Scholar
  45. White, M.J. 1987. American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  46. White, M.J. and J.E. Glick. 1999. “The Impact of Immigration on Residential Segregation.” Pp. 345–72 in Immigration and Opportunity: Race, Ethnicity, and Employment in the United States, edited by F. Bean and S. Bell-Rose. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  47. Wilson, W.J. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  48. Zoloth, B.S. 1976. Alternative Measures of School Segregation. Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Logan
    • 1
  • Brian J. Stults
    • 2
  • Reynolds Farley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity at AlbanyAlbany
  2. 2.Center for Studies in Criminology and LawUniversity of FloridaUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity of MichiganUSA

Personalised recommendations