, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 503–519 | Cite as

The impact of family policy expenditure on fertility in western Europe

  • Adriaan KalwijEmail author


This article analyzes the impact on fertility of changes in national expenditure for family allowances, maternity- and parental-leave benefits, and childcare subsidies. To do so, I estimate a model for the timing of births using individual-level data from 16 western European countries, supplemented with data on national social expenditure for different family policy programs. The latter allow approximation of the subsidies that households with children receive from such programs. The results show that increased expenditure on family policy programs that help women to combine family and employment-and thus reduce the opportunity cost of children—generates positive fertility responses.


Total Fertility Rate Parental Leave Family Policy European Social Survey Crude Birth Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Population Association of America 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Utrecht School of EconomicsUtrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging and RetirementThe Netherlands

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