, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 747–770 | Cite as

The spread of health services and fertility Transition

  • Sarah R. Brauner-Otto
  • William G. Axinn
  • Dirgha J. Ghimire


We use detailed measures of social change over time, increased availability of various health services, and couples’ fertility behaviors to document the independent effects of health services on fertility limitation. Our investigation focuses on a setting in rural Nepal that experienced a transition from virtually no use of birth control in 1945 to the widespread use of birth control by 1995 to limit fertility. Changes in the availability of many different dimensions of health services provide the means to evaluate their independent influences on contraceptive use to limit childbearing. Findings show that family planning as well as maternal and child health services have independent effects on the rate of ending childbearing. For example, the provision of child immunization services increases the rate of contraceptive use to limit fertility independently of family planning services. Additionally, new Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measures also allow us to test many alternative models of the spatial distribution of services. These tests reveal that complex, geographically defined measures of all health service providers outperform more simple measures. These results provide new information about the consequences of maternal and child health services and the importance of these services in shaping fertility transitions.


Health Service Family Planning Contraceptive Method Community Context Health Service Provider 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah R. Brauner-Otto
    • 1
  • William G. Axinn
    • 2
  • Dirgha J. Ghimire
    • 2
  1. 1.Carolina Population CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 8120, University SquareChapel Hill
  2. 2.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganUSA

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