Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 181–198 | Cite as

Should i stay or should i go? The impact of age norms on leaving home

  • Francesco C. Billari
  • Aart C. Liefbroer
Article

Abstract

This article studies the association between social norms and the timing of leaving home. Although largely overlooked by most recent studies on leaving home, life-course theory suggests that age norms and age grading influence life-course decisions in general and leaving home in particular. We use Fishbein and Ajzen’s model of “reasoned behavior” to integrate this strand of research with the more individualistic view that dominates current thinking. Using data from a Dutch panel survey, we use a Cox regression model with a control for sample selection to estimate the association between perceived age norms and the timing of leaving home. We show that perceived opinions of parents are associated with the actual timing of leaving the parental home but that societal norms and friends’ norms concerning the timing of leaving home are not. In addition, the timing of leaving home is also associated with the perceived costs and benefits of leaving home and with the perceived housing market situation.

Keywords

Young Adult Housing Market Behavioral Control Parental Home Sample Selection Bias 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aassve, A., F.C. Billari, S. Mazzuco, and F. Ongaro. 2002. “Leaving Home: A Comparative Analysis of ECHP Data.” Journal of European Social Policy 12:259–75.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. 1988. Attitudes, Personality and Behavior. Milton-Keynes, England: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  3. — 1991. “The Theory of Planned Behavior.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50:179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose, B.W., C.A. Capone, and Y. Deng. 2001. “Optimal Put Exercise: An Empirical Examination of Conditions for Mortgage Foreclosure.” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 23:213–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery, R., F.K. Goldscheider, and A. Speare. 1992. “Feathered Nest/Gilded Cage: Parental Income and Leaving Home in the Transition to Adulthood.” Demography 29:375–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Axinn, W.H. and A. Thornton. 1992. “The Influence of Parental Resources on the Timing of the Transition to Marriage.” Social Science Research 21:261–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baanders, A.N. 1998. “Leavers, Planners and Dwellers. The Decision to Leave the Parental Home.” Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Economics and Management, Wageningen Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  8. Barber, J. 2000. “Intergenerational Influences on the Entry Into Parenthood: Mothers’ Preferences for Family and Nonfamily Behavior.” Social Forces 79:319–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernardi, L. 2003. “Channels of Social Influence on Reproduction.” Population Research and Policy Review 22:427–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Billari, F.C., D. Philipov, and P. Baizán. 2001. “Leaving Home in Europe. The Experience of Cohorts Born Around 1960.” International Journal of Population Geography 7:339–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bongaarts, J. and S.C. Watkins. 1996. “Social Interactions and Contemporary Fertility Transitions.” Population and Development Review 22:639–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buchmann, M. 1989. The Script of Life in Modern Society. Entry Into Adulthood in a Changing World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cox, D.R. 1972. “Regression Models and Life Tables.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B 34:187–200.Google Scholar
  14. Crook, N.R. 1978. “On Social Norms and Fertility Decline.” Journal of Development Studies 14:198–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Jong Gierveld, J., A.C. Liefbroer, and E. Beekink. 1991. “The Effect of Parental Resources on Patterns of Leaving Home Among Young Adults in the Netherlands.” European Sociological Review 7:55–71.Google Scholar
  16. Efron, B. and R. Tibshirani. 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. New York: Chapmann and Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Ermisch, J. and P. Di Salvo. 1997. “The Economic Determinants of Young People’s Household Formation.” Economica 64:627–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer, C.S. 1995. “The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A Twentieth-Year Assessment.” American Journal of Sociology 101:543–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fishbein, M. and I. Ajzen. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  20. Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., S. Kennedy, V.C. McCloyd, R.G. Rumbaut, and R.A. Settersten, Jr. 2004. “Growing Up Is Harder to Do.” Contexts 3:33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giele, J.Z. and G.H. Elder, Jr. 1998. Methods of Life Course Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Goldscheider, F.K. and J. DaVanzo. 1989. “Pathways to Independent Living in Early Adulthood: Marriage, Semiautonomy, and Premarital Residential Independence.” Demography 26:597–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldscheider, F.K. and C. Goldscheider. 1989. “Family Structure and Con ict: Nest-Leaving Expectations of Young Adults and Their Parents.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 51:87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. — 1993. Leaving Home Before Marriage. Ethnicity, Familism and Generational Relationships. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  25. — 1998. “The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60:745–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hagestad, G.O. and B.L. Neugarten. 1985. “Age and the Life Course.” Pp. 35–61 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, Vol. 2, edited by R.H. Binstock and E. Shanahan. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  27. Heckhausen, J. 1999. Developmental Regulation in Adulthood. Age-Normative and Sociostructural Constraints as Adaptive Challenges. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Heckman, J.J. 1976. “The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection, and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Models.” Annals of Economic and Social Measurement 5:475–92.Google Scholar
  29. Hill, D. and M.S. Hill. 1976. “Older Children and Splitting Off.” Pp. 117–54 in Five Thousand American Families—Patterns of Economic Progress, Vol. 4, edited by G. Duncan and J.N. Morgan. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  30. Hogan, D.P. 1978. “The Variable Order of Events in the Life Course.” American Sociological Review 43:573–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holdsworth, C. 2000. “Leaving Home in Britain and Spain.” European Sociological Review 16: 201–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, R.W. and J. DaVanzo. 1998. “Economic and Cultural Influences on the Decision to Leave Home in Peninsular Malaysia.” Demography 35:97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, G. 1995. Leaving Home. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kohler, H.-P., J.R. Behrman, and S.C. Watkins. 2001. “The Density of Social Networks and Fertility Decisions: Evidence From South Nyanza District, Kenya.” Demography 38:43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lekkas, V., J.M. Quigley, and R. Van Order. 1993. “Loan Loss Severity and Optimal Mortgage Default.” Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association 21:353–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lesthaeghe, R. 1980. “On the Social Control of Human Reproduction.” Population and Development Review 6:527–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liefbroer, A.C. and J. De Jong Gierveld. 1993. “The Impact of Rational Considerations and Perceived Opinions on Young Adults’ Union Formation Intentions.” Journal of Family Issues 14:213–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liefbroer, A.C. and P.A. Dykstra. 2000. Life Courses in Flux: A Study of Developments in the Life Courses of Dutch Born Between 1900 and 1970 [in Dutch]. The Hague: Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy.Google Scholar
  39. Liefbroer, A.C. and M. Kalmijn. 1997. Panel Study of Social Integration in the Netherlands 1987–1995 (PSIN8795). Codebook. ICS Occasional Papers and Documents Series (ICS Code Books-30), Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  40. Marini, M.M. 1984. “Age and Sequencing Norms in the Transition to Adulthood.” Social Forces 63:229–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. — 1985. “Determinants of the Timing of Adult Role Entry.” Social Science Research 14: 309–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, W.B. 1995. “Childbearing Motivation and Its Measurement.” Journal of Biosocial Science 27:473–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller, W.B. and D.J. Pasta. 1994. “The Psychology of Child Timing: A Measurement Instrument and a Model.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24:218–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mitchell, B.A., A.V. Wister, and T.K. Burch. 1989. “The Family Environment and Leaving the Parental Home.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 51:605–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Modell, J. 1980. “Normative Aspects of American Marriage Timing Since World War II.” Journal of Family History 5:210–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. — 1997. “What Do Life-Course Norms Mean?” Human Development 40:282–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Montgomery, M.R. and J.B. Casterline. 1996. “Social Learning, Social Influence, and New Models of Fertility.” Population and Development Review 22(Suppl.):151–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morgan, S.P. and R. Berkowitz King. 2001. “Why Have Children in the 21st Century? Biological Predisposition, Social Coercion, Rational Choice.” European Journal of Population 17:3–20.Google Scholar
  49. Mulder, C.H. and W.A.V. Clark. 2000. “Leaving Home and Leaving the State: Evidence From the United States.” International Journal of Population Geography 6:423–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mulder, C.H. and M. Wagner. 1993. “Migration and Marriage in the Life Course: A Method for Studying Synchronized Events.” European Journal of Population 9:55–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murphy, M. and D. Wang. 1998. “Family and Sociodemographic Influences on Patterns of Leaving Home in Postwar Britain.” Demography 35:293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neugarten, B. 1996. The Meanings of Age: Selected Papers of Bernice L. Neugarten, edited by D.A. Neugarten. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  53. Rindfuss, R.R., S.P. Morgan, and G. Swicegood. 1988. First Births in America: Changes in the Timing of Parenthood. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  54. Settersten, R.A., Jr. 1998. “A Time to Leave Home and a Time Never to Return? Age Constraints Around the Living Arrangements of Young Adults.” Social Forces 76:1373–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. — 2003. “Age Structuring and the Rhythm of the Life Course.” Pp. 81–98 in Handbook of the Life Course, edited by J.T. Mortimer and M.J. Shanahan. New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Settersten, R.A., Jr., and G.O. Hagestad. 1996. “What’s the Latest? Cultural Age Deadlines for Family Transitions.” The Gerontologist 36:178–88.Google Scholar
  57. Settersten, R.A. and K.U. Mayer. 1997. “The Measurement of Age, Age Structuring, and the Life Course.” Annual Review of Sociology 23:233–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Surkyn, J. and R. Lesthaeghe. 2004. “Value Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) in Northern, Western and Southern Europe: An Update.” Demographic Research, Special Collection 3: Article 3. Available online at http://www.demographic-research.org/special/3/3/ default.htmGoogle Scholar
  59. Teitler, J.O. 1996. The Impact of Neighborhood Norms on Youth Sexual and Fertility Behavior. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  60. Veevers, J.E., E.M. Gee, and A.V. Wister. 1996. “Homeleaving Age Norms: Conflict or Consensus?” International Journal of Aging and Human Development 43:277–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Youniss, J. and J. Smollar. 1985. Adolescent Relations With Mothers, Fathers, and Friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. White, J.M. 1998. “The Normative Interpretation of Life Course Event Histories.” Marriage & Family Review 27:211–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Whittington, L.A. and H.E. Peters. 1996. “Economic Incentives for Financial and Residential Independence.” Demography 33:82–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco C. Billari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aart C. Liefbroer
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Carlo F. Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics and Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic ResearchUniversità BocconiMilanItaly
  2. 2.MilanoItaly
  3. 3.Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic InstituteThe Hague
  4. 4.Department of Social Research MethodologyVrije Universiteit AmsterdamThe Netherland

Personalised recommendations