Demography

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 587–616 | Cite as

Demography and the social contract

  • Marta Tienda
Article

Abstract

As the most demographically complex nation in the world, the United States faces ever more formidable challenges to fulfill its commitment to the democratic values of equity and inclusion as the foreign-born share of the population increases. Immigration, the major source of the contemporary diversification of the population, provides several lessons about how to prepare for that future within a framework of social justice and how to realign recent demographic trends with cherished democratic principles. A review of historical and contemporary controversies about the representation of the foreign-born and alien suffrage both illustrates the reemergence of ascriptive civic hierarchies and highlights some potentially deleterious social and civic consequences of recent demographic trends.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Apportionment Act of 1911 (37 Stat. 13).Google Scholar
  2. Apportionment Act of 1929 (46 Stat. 26).Google Scholar
  3. Apportionment Act of 1941 (54 Stat. 162).Google Scholar
  4. Arenson, K.W. 2001. “CUNY Raises Tuition Rates for Foreigners Here Illegally.” New York Times, November 3, p. D3.Google Scholar
  5. Arneson, R.J. 2001. “Equality (Philosophical Aspects).” Pp. 4724–29 in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by N.J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  6. Aylsworth L.E. 1931. “The Passing of Alien Suffrage.” American Political Science Review 25:114–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bacon, D.C., R.H. Davidson, and M. Keller, eds. 1995. The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  8. Baker v Carr, 369, US 186 (1962).Google Scholar
  9. Balinski, M.L. and H.P. Young. 2001. Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bass, L.E. and L.M. Casper. 2001. “Differences in Registering and Voting Between Native-Born and Naturalized Americans?” Population Research and Policy Review 20:483–511. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  11. Bauböck, R. 1994a. “Changing the Boundaries of Citizenship: The Inclusion of Immigrants in Democratic Polities.” Paper presented at the 90th annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 1–4, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bauböck, R. 1994b. Transnational Citizenship. Membership and Rights in International Migration. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  13. Blais, A., L. Massicotte, and A. Yoshinaka. 2001. “Deciding Who Has the Right to Vote: A Comparative Analysis of Election Laws.” Electoral Studies 20:41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosniak, L. 2000. “Universal Citizenship and the Problem of Alienage.” Northwestern University Law Review 94:963–82.Google Scholar
  15. Briggs, V. 1993. “Immigration and the U.S. Labor Market: Public Policy Gone Awry.” Public Policy Brief 7:9–38. Annandale-on-Hudson, NY: Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Bard College.Google Scholar
  16. Chy Lung v Freeman, 92 U.S. 275 (1876).Google Scholar
  17. Congressional Record. 1940. “Proceedings and Debates of the Congress. House of Representatives.” April 11.Google Scholar
  18. Dalaker, J. 2001. “Poverty in the United States: 2000.” Current Population Reports. Series P-60, No. 214. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  19. Davila, F. 2002. “Bills Would Ease Tuition Rules for Undocumented Immigrants—Legislature 2002.” Seattle Times, January 24, p. B1.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, S.T. 1981. “Reapportionment: Numerical Politics.” American Demographics November: 24–29.Google Scholar
  21. Day, S. 2000. “Dealing With Alien Suffrage: Examples From the EU and Germany.” Paper presented at the Ionian Conference, Corfu, Greece, May 19–22.Google Scholar
  22. Edmonston, B. and C. Schultze, eds. 1995. Modernizing the U.S. Census. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  23. Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2001. “Taxpayers Should Not Have to Subsidize College for Illegal Aliens.” Available on-line at http://www.fairus.org/html/04182108.htm Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) v Klutznick, 486 F.Supp. 564 (D.D.C.), appeal dismissed, 447 U.S. 916 (1980).Google Scholar
  24. Fitzpatrick, J.C., ed. 1938. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799, Vol. 27. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  25. Franklin v Massachusetts, 505 U.S. 788 (1992).Google Scholar
  26. Frey, W.H. and R.C. Devol. 2000. “America’s Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players.” Policy Brief 9. Santa Monica, CA: Milken InstituteGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson, C.J. and E. Lennon. 1999. “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850–1990.” Population Division Working Paper 29. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  28. Goldfarb, C.E. 1995. “Allocating the Local Apportionment Pie: What Portion for Resident Aliens?” Yale Law Journal 104:1441–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gopal, V. 2001. “Comment: From Judicial to Administrative Denaturalization: For Better or for Worse?” University of Colorado Law Review 72:779–815.Google Scholar
  30. Gorbach v Reno, 219 F.3d 1087, 1099 (9th Cir. 2000).Google Scholar
  31. Gordon, M. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gosewinkel, D. 2001. “Historical Development of Citizenship.” Pp. 1852–57 in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by N.J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  33. Guide to Congress, 4th ed. 1991. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.Google Scholar
  34. Harper-Ho, V. 2000. “Noncitizen Voting Rights: The History, the Law and Current Prospects for Change.” Law and Inequality Journal 18:271–322.Google Scholar
  35. Henderson v Mayor of New York, 92 U.S. 259 (1876).Google Scholar
  36. Howard, M. 1991. “Vote to Extend Voting Rights Seen as Likely to Start a Trend.” Washington Times, November 7, p. B3.Google Scholar
  37. Hume, D. [1748] 1948. “Of the Original Contract.” Pp. 147–66 in Social Contract: Essays by Locke, Hume and Rousseau, edited by E. Barker. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Immigration Act of May 26, 1924, (43 Statutes-at-Large 153. 68th U.S. Congress, Session I, chaps. 185–190).Google Scholar
  39. Immigration Act of June 27, 1952, (66 Statutes-at-Large 163, 82nd U.S. Congress, Session 2, chap. 477).Google Scholar
  40. Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2002. Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  41. Jasso, G. and M.R. Rosenzweig. 1990. The New Chosen People: Immigrants in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, K.R. 1993. “Los Olvidados: Images of the Immigrant, Political Power of Noncitizens, and Immigration Law and Enforcement.” Brigham Young University Law Review 3:1139–241.Google Scholar
  43. Kaiman, B. and L.K. Varner. 1991. “Maryland: Takoma Park Residents Favor Vote For Non-Citizens in City Elections.” Washington Post, November 6, p. A30.Google Scholar
  44. Keyssar, A. 2000. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Kim, C.Y. 2001. “Revoking Your Citizenship: Minimizing the Likelihood of Administrative Error.” Columbia Law Review 101:1448–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. King, D. 2000. Making Americans: Immigration, Race, and the Origins of the Diverse Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kurian, G.T., ed. 1998. A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Levy, F. 1987. Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Marshall, T.H. 1964. Class, Citizenship, and Social Development. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  50. Massey, D.S., G. Hugo, J.E. Taylor, J. Arango, A. Kouaouci, and A. Pellegrino. 1998. Worlds in Motion: International Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  51. Mills, C. 1997. The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Neuman, G.L. 1992. “We Are the People’ Alien Suffrage in German and American Perspective.” Michigan Journal of International Law 13:259–335.Google Scholar
  53. — 1993. “The Lost Century of American Immigration Law: 1776–1875.” Columbia Law Review 93:1833–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. — 1996. Strangers to the Constitution: Immigrants, Borders, and Fundamental Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. “Note: The Constitutional Requirement of Judicial Review for Administrative Deportation Decisions.” 1997. Harvard Law Review 110:1850–67.Google Scholar
  56. Perez v Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (1958).Google Scholar
  57. Porter, K. 1918. A History of Suffrage in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. Poston, D.L., S.A. Camarota, L.F. Bouvier, G. Li, and H. Dan. 1998. “Remaking the Political Landscape: How Immigration Redistributes Seats in the House.” Center for Immigration Studies. Available on-line at http://www.cis.org/articles/1998/Reapportionment/remaking.htmlGoogle Scholar
  59. Prewitt, K. 2001. “Beyond Census 2000: As a Nation, We Are the World.” Carnegie Reporter 1(3):3–11.Google Scholar
  60. Public Papers of the Presidents of the U.S. 1966. “Lyndon B. Johnson, 3 October 1965.” Vol. II, Entry 546. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  61. Purnick, J. 2002. “Tuition, Out of State and Beyond.” New York Times, February 18, p. B1.Google Scholar
  62. Raskin, J.B. 1993. “Legal Aliens, Local Citizens: The Historical, Constitutional and Theoretical Meanings of Alien Suffrage.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 141:1391–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. “Recent Legislation: Immigration Law—Education—California Extends Instate Tuition Benefits to Undocumented Aliens—Act Relating to Public Postsecondary Education.” 2002. Harvard Law Review 115:1548–54.Google Scholar
  64. Reynolds v Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964).Google Scholar
  65. Rosberg, G.M. 1977. “Aliens and Equal Protection: Why Not the Right to Vote?” Michigan Law Review 75:1092–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rousseau, J.J. [1762] 2002. “The Social Contract.” Pp. 149–254 in The Social Contract and the First and Second Discources, edited by S. Dunn. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Schmeckebier, L.F. 1941. Congressional Apportionment. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  68. Schuck, P. 1997. “The Reevaluation of American Citizenship.” Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 12:1–34.Google Scholar
  69. Scott v Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1856).Google Scholar
  70. Singer, A. 2000. “Naturalization Under Changing Conditions of Membership: Dominican Immigrants in New York City.” Pp. 157–86 in Immigration Research for a New Century: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, edited by N. Foner, R. Rumbaut, and S.J. Gold. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  71. Smith, J.P. and B. Edmonston, eds. 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, R.M. 1993. “Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America.” American Political Science Review 87:549–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, R.M. 1997. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Sontag, D. 1992. “Noncitizens and Right to Vote: Advocates for Immigrants Explore Opening up Balloting.” New York Times, July 31, p. B1.Google Scholar
  75. Tamayo, W.R. 1995. “When the ‘Coloreds’ Are Neither Black nor Citizens: The United States Civil Rights Movement and Global Migration.” Asian Law Journal 2:1–32.Google Scholar
  76. Ueda, R. 1980. “Naturalization and Citizenship.” Pp. 734–48 in Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, edited by S. Thernstrom. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000a. “Apportionment of the U.S. House of Representatives.” Available online at http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/apportionment/history.htmlGoogle Scholar
  78. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000b. “Apportionment—Who’s Counted.” Available on-line at http://www.census.gov/ population/www/censusdata/apportionment/who.htmlGoogle Scholar
  79. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000c. “Census 2000 Redistricting (Public Law 94–171) Summary File.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Tables PL1 and PL2.Google Scholar
  80. —. 2000d. “Projections of the Resident Population by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2100.” Population Division Paper NP-D1-A. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  81. —. 2001. “Profile of the Foreign-born Population in the United States: 2000.” Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 206. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  82. U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. “Congressional Apportionment.” Historical Charts. Available on-line at http:// www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/apportionment.htmlGoogle Scholar
  83. U.S. House of Representatives. 1964. Hearings of Subcommittee Number 1 of the Committee on the Judiciary, 2 July. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  84. U.S. Senate. 1965a. Hearings of Subcommittee on the Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary Hearings, February 10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  85. —. 1965b. Hearings of Subcommittee on the Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary Hearings, February24. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  86. Voting Rights Act, P.L. No. 89–110, 79 Stat. 445 (1965).Google Scholar
  87. Walzer, M. 1995. “Contract, Social.” Pp. 163–64 in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, edited by T. Honderich. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Wesberry v Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964).Google Scholar
  89. Williams, H.P. 1912. “The Road to Citizenship.” Political Science Quarterly 27:399–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. United States Department of Commerce v Montana, 503 U.S. 442 (1992).Google Scholar
  91. Wood, C. 1999. “Losing Control of America’s Future: The Census, Birth Right Citizenship, and Illegal Aliens.” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 22:465–522.Google Scholar
  92. Woodrow-Lafield, D.A. 2001. “Implications of Immigration for Apportionment.” Population Research and Policy Review 20:267–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Tienda
    • 1
  1. 1.Office of Population ResearchPrinceton UniversityNJPrinceton

Personalised recommendations