, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 739–761 | Cite as

Fertility and development: evidence from Brazil

  • Joseph E. Potter
  • Carl P. Schmertmann
  • Suzana M. Cavenaghi


Using microdata from the Brazilian demographic censuses of 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1991, aggregated into 518 consistently defined spatial units called microregions, we estimated fertility and mortality and constructed indicators of development and living conditions in the rural and urban areas of the microregions in each census. We then estimated cross-sectional and fixed-effects models to answer questions about the degree to which changes in these indicators are associated with changes in fertility and whether the relationship between fertility and development shifts through time. We found strong and consistent relationships between the decline in fertility and measurable changes in social and economic circumstances.


Total Fertility Rate Fertility Decline Fertility Transition Female Labor Force Participation Fertility Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph E. Potter
    • 1
  • Carl P. Schmertmann
    • 2
  • Suzana M. Cavenaghi
    • 3
  1. 1.Population Research CenterUniversity of TexasAustin
  2. 2.Department of Economics and Center for the Study of PopulationFlorida State UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Nucleus for Population StudiesUniversity of CampinasUSA

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