Demography

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 95–117 | Cite as

Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: Enrollment and attainment in the early reform years

Article

Abstract

Using evidence about educational disparities, this article demonstrates the need for attention to minority populations in studies of social stratification in China. Analyses of data from a 1992 survey of children demonstrate substantial ethnic differences in enrollment among rural 7- to 14 year olds, with rates for ethnic Chinese boys roughly double those for girls from certain ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses indicate that the ethnic gap can be attributed, in part, to compositional differences in geographic location of residence and socioeconomic background. There is no general tendency of a greater gender gap for minorities than for the ethnic Chinese, but significant differences in the gender gap emerge across individual ethnic groups. Together with evidence from census data showing that ethnic disparities in junior high school transitions increased between 1982 and 1990, these results stress the continuing significance of ethnicity as a fundamental factor that conditions status attainment opportunities in China.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, B.A. 1995. “Demographic and Social Characteristics of Nationalities in Yunnan Province, China: Cultural Diversity and Development Indicators.” PSC Research Report No. 95–352. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B.A. and B.D. Silver. 1995. “Ethnic Differences in Fertility and Sex Ratios at Birth in China: Evidence From Xinjiang.” Population Studies 49:211–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, F. and Z. Liu. 1986. “Sex Preference, Fertility, and Family Planning in China.” Population and Development Review 12:221–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. —. 1989. “Measuring Regional Variation in Sex Preference in China: A Cautionary Note.” Social Science Research 18:306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banister, J. 1994. “Implications and Quality of China’s 1990 Census Data.” Pp. 253–80 in 1990 Population Census of China—Proceedings of the International Seminar, edited by State Council Population Census Office and State Statistical Bureau Department of Population Statistics. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, A.D. 1993. China’s Far West: Four Decades of Change. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cao, Y. and V. Nee. 2000. “Comment: Controversies and Evidence in the Market Transition Debate.” American Journal of Sociology 105:1175–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng, K.M. 1996. The Quality of Primary Education: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province, China. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  9. China Statistics Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago, and China Statistical Consultancy Services. 1989. Codebook and Documentation of the China Population Census 1982. Chicago: University of Illinois. Archived at the University of Michigan Population Studies Center Data Archive, Study #474. Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  10. “China Takes Active Measures to Develop the West.” 1999. Beijing Review, December 6, 42 (49):29.Google Scholar
  11. Connelly, R. and Z. Zheng. 2000. “Determinants of Primary and Middle School Enrollment of 10 to 18 Year Olds in China.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, March 23-25.Google Scholar
  12. Davis, D. 1989. “Chinese Social Welfare: Policies and Outcomes.” China Quarterly 119:577–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dilger, B. 1984. “The Education of Minorities.” Comparative Education 20: 155–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gladney, D.C. 1996. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’ss Republic of China. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  15. Hannum, E. 1996. “Foundations of Inequality: Social Origins and the Education of Sons and Daughters in Rural China.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Sociology Association Research Committee on Social Stratification, Ann Arbor, MI, August 13–14.Google Scholar
  16. —. 1999a. “Political Change and the Urban-Rural Gap in Education in China, 1949–1990.” Comparative Education Review 43:193–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —. 1999b. “Poverty and Basic-Level Schooling in the People’ss Republic of China: Equity Issues in the 1990s.” Prospects: The Quarterly Journal of Comparative Education 29:561–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hannum, E. and Y. Xie. 1998. “Ethnic Stratification in Northwest China: Occupational Differences Between Han Chinese and National Minorities in Xinjiang, 1982–1990.” Demography 35:323–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hansen, M.H. 1999. Lessons in Being Chinese: Minority Education and Ethnic Identity in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  20. Harrell, S., ed. 1995. Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  21. Harrell, S. and L. Mgebbu. 1999. “Folk Theories of Success Where Han Aren’t Always the Best.” Pp. 213–41 in China’s National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development, edited by G. Postiglione. New York: Garland Press.Google Scholar
  22. Johannson, S. and O. Nygren. 1991. “The Missing Girls of China: A New Demographic Account.” Population and Development Review 16:63–83.Google Scholar
  23. Khan, A.R. and C. Riskin. 1998. “Income and Inequality in China: Composition, Distribution and Growth of Household Income, 1988 to 1995.” China Quarterly 154:221–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knight, J. and S. Li. 1996. “Educational Attainment and the Rural-Urban Divide in China.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 58 (1):83–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewin, K. and Y. Wang. 1994. Implementing Basic Education in China: Progress and Prospects in Rich, Poor and National Minority Areas. IIEP Research Report No. 101. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  26. Liu C., X. Yao, and W. Lavely. 1996. China Administrative Regions GIS Data: 1:1M, County Level, 1 July 1990. (Published and Disseminated by CIESIN at URL: ftp://ftpserver.ciesin.org/pub/data/China/adm_bnd/CTSAR90.bnd9071/).Google Scholar
  27. Lofstedt, J.-I. 1994. Education in Multi-Ethnic and Disadvantaged Areas: The Case of Gansu in China. Work-in-progress report. Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet.Google Scholar
  28. Mackerras, C. 1994. China’s Minorities: Integration and Modernization in the Twentieth Century. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. —. 1995. China’s Minority Cultures: Identities and Integration Since 1912. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Education. 1999. “Action Plan for Revitalizing Education for the 21st Century.” (Electronic edition, http://www.moe.edu.cn/).Google Scholar
  31. Nee, V. 1996. “The Emergence of a Market Society: Changing Mechanisms of Stratification in China.” American Journal of Sociology 101:908–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nee, V. and R. Matthews. 1996. “Market Transition and Societal Transformation in Reforming State Socialism.” Annual Review of Sociology 22:401–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Piazza, A. and E.H. Liang. 1998. “Reducing Absolute Poverty in China: Current Status and Is sues.” Journal of International Affairs 52:253–64.Google Scholar
  34. Postiglione, G. 1992a. “China’s National Minorities and Educational Change.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 22 (1):20–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. —. 1992b. “The Implications of Modernization for the Education of China’s National Minorities.” Pp. 307–36 in Education and Modernization: The Chinese Experience, edited by R. Hayhoe. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  36. —, ed. 1999. China’s National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development. New York: Garland Press.Google Scholar
  37. Poston, D.L., Jr. and S. Jing. 1992. “The Demographic and Socio-economic Composition of China’s Ethnic Minorities.” Pp. 573–601 in The Population of Modern China, edited by D.L. Poston and D. Yaukey. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  38. Poston, D.L., Jr. and D. Yaukey, eds. 1992. The Population of Modern China. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Sautman, B. 1999. “Expanding Access to Higher Education for China’s National Minorities.” Pp. 173–210 in China’s National Minority Education, edited by G. Postiglione. New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  40. Skinner, G.W. 1996. China County Level Data on Population and Agriculture, Keyed to 1:1M GIS Map. Published and Disseminated by CIESIN at URL: ftp://ftpserver.ciesin.org/pub/data/China/CITAS/census_agr/).Google Scholar
  41. State Council and State Statistical Bureau, eds. 1993. China 1990 Population Census Data [in Chinese]. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  42. State Ethnic Affairs Commission, eds. 1981. China’s National Minorities [in Chinese]. Beijing: People’ss Press.Google Scholar
  43. State Ethnic Affairs Commission and State Statistical Bureau, eds. 1993. China Minority Statistics 1992 [in Chinese]. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  44. State Statistical Bureau. 1992. Work Handbook for the 1992 National Sample Survey on the Situation of China’s Children [in Chinese]. Beijing: State Statistical Bureau.Google Scholar
  45. —. 1993. 1992 National Sample Survey on the Situation of Children: National Final Report [in Chinese]. Beijing: State Statistical Bureau.Google Scholar
  46. State Statistical Bureau. 1996. China Statistical Yearbook 1996. Beijing: State Statistical Bureau. (On-line edition, http://www.stats.gov.cn/sjjw/ndsj/information/njml.html).Google Scholar
  47. State Statistical Bureau and State Ethnic Affairs Commission. 1994. 1990 Census Tabulation on China’s Minority Nationalities [in Chinese]. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  48. —. 1999. China’s Ethnic Statistics Yearbook. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House.Google Scholar
  49. Sun Huaiyang and Yong Du. 1993. “The Occupational Circumstances of China’s Female Minority Population” [in Chinese]. Pp. 80–85 in Development Among China’s Minorities, edited by T. Zhang and R. Huang. Beijing: Haiyang Publishing House.Google Scholar
  50. Tsang, M.C. 1994. “Costs of Education in China: Issues of Resource Mobilization, Equality, Equity, and Efficiency.” Education Economics 2 (3):287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. UNESCO. 1998. “World Data on Education.” Geneva: UNESCO: IBE Documentation and Information Unit. (Internet Databank, http://www.ibe.unesco.org/Inf_Doc/Nat_reps/natdb96.htm).Google Scholar
  52. Wang, G. 2001. “Growth and Poverty Reduction in the People’ss Republic of China.” Paper presented at the Asian Development Bank Conference, “Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty: Reforming Policies and Institutions for Poverty Reduction.” Manila, February.Google Scholar
  53. World Bank. 1992. China: Strategies for Reducing Poverty in the 1990s. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  54. Xie, Y. 1989. “Measuring Regional Variation in Sex Preference in China: A Cautionary Note.” Social Science Research 18:291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xie, Y. and E. Hannum. 1996. “Regional Variation in Earnings Inequality in Reform-Era Urban China.” American Journal of Sociology 101:950–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yuan, H., Z. Zhang, and Y. Wu. 1993. “The Distribution of Education Among China’s Minorities” [in Chinese]. Pp. 76–80 in Development Among China’s Minorities, edited by T. Zhang and R. Huang. Beijing: Haiyang Publishing House.Google Scholar
  57. Zhang, T., ed. 1989. The Demography of Ethnic Groups [in Chinese]. Beijing: China Demographic Press.Google Scholar
  58. —. 1993. “Development Among the Minority Women of China.” (Chinese) Pp. 92–102 in Development Among China’s Minorities, edited by T. Zhang and R. Huang. Beijing: Haiyang Publishing House.Google Scholar
  59. Zhang, T. and R. Huang, eds. 1993. Development Among China’s Minorities. (Chinese) Beijing: Haiyang Publishing House.Google Scholar
  60. Zhang, T. and Y. Ji. 1993. “Development Among the Minority Populations of China.” (Chinese) Pp. 1–15 in Development Among China’s Minorities, edited by T. Zhang and R. Huang. Beijing: Haiyang Publishing House.Google Scholar
  61. Zhou, X. 2000. “Economic Transformation and Income Inequality in Urban China: Evidence From Panel Data.” American Journal of Sociology 105:1135–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations