, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 513–524 | Cite as

Social inequalities in disability-free life expectancy in the french male population, 1980–1991

  • Emmanuelle Cambois
  • Jean-Marie Robine
  • Mark D. Hayward
Elderly Health Status And Mortality In Developed Countries


We calculate aggregate indicators of population health for occupational groups to gauge changes in health disparities during the 1980–1991 period. The study is based on the experiences of French adult men in three major occupational classes: managers, manual workers, and an intermediary occupational group. Life table models show that managers have longer life expectancy and dis-abilityfree life expectancy (DFLE) than manual workers, and a shorter life expectancy with disability. The concurrent increases in life expectancy and DFLE during the period maintained the occupational disparities in health; the years lived with disability, however, declined for all groups, as for the entire French population.


Life Expectancy Occupational Group Occupational Classis Disability Prevalence Life Table Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bebbington, A.C. 1993. “Regional and Social Variations in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in Great Britain.” Pp. 175–91 in Calculation of Health Expectancies: Harmonization, Consensus Achieved and Future Perspectives, edited by J.M. Robine, C.D. Mathers, M.R. Bone, and I. Romieu. Montrouge: John Libbey Eurotext.Google Scholar
  2. Boshuizen, H.C., H.P.A. van de Water, and R.J.M. Perenboom. 1994. “Sociaal-economishe verschillen in de gezonde levensverwachting.” Tijdschr Soc Gezondheidsz 72:122–27.Google Scholar
  3. Calot, G. and M. Febvay. 1965. “La mortalité différentielle suivant le milieu social: présentation d’une méthode expérimentée en France sur la période 1955–1960.” Etudes et Conjoncture 20(11):75–159.Google Scholar
  4. Cambois, E. 1998. “La mesure des inégalités sociales face à la santé: problèmes méthodologiques.” Pp. 422–32 in Morbidité, mortalité: problèmes de mesure, facteurs d’évolution, essai de prospective: colloque international de Sinaia sept 1996. Paris: AIDELF/PUF.Google Scholar
  5. Cambois, E., J.M. Robine, and N. Brouard. 1999. “Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: History of the Indicators and Methods of Calculation.” Population: An English Selection 11:7–34.Google Scholar
  6. Crimmins, E.M., M.D. Hayward, and Y. Saito. 1994. “Changing Mortality and Morbidity Rates and the Health Status and Life Expectancy of the Older Population.” Demography 31:159–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. —. 1996. “Differentials in Active Life Expectancy in the Older Population of the United States.” Journal of Gerontological Social Science 51B:S111–20.Google Scholar
  8. Crimmins, E.M., Y. Saito, and M.D. Hayward. 1993. “Sullivan and Multistate Methods of Estimating Active Life Expectancy: Two Methods, Two Answers.” Pp. 155–60 in Calculation of Health Expectancies; Harmonization, Consensus Achieved and Future Perspectives, edited by J.M. Robine, C.D. Mathers, M.R. Bone, and I. Romieu. Montrouge: John Libbey Eurotext.Google Scholar
  9. Crimmins, E.M., Y. Saito, and D. Ingegneri. 1989. “Changes in Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States.” Population Development Review 15:235–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. —. 1997. “Trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States.” Population and Development Review 23:555–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Desplanques, G. 1985. “La mortalité des adultes: résultats de deux études longitudinales (période 1955–1980).” Les Collections de l’INSEE D 102:211.Google Scholar
  12. —. 1993. “L’inégalité sociale devant la mort.” Pp. 251–58 in INSEE La société française: données sociales 1993. Paris: INSEE.Google Scholar
  13. Doblhammer, G. and J. Kytir. 1999. “Social Inequalities in Mortality and Morbidity: Consequences for DFLE.” Pp. 177–90 in Towards an Integrated System of Indicators to Assess the Health Status of the Population: 9th REVES International Meeting Proceedings December 11/13-1996, Rome-Italy. Rome: ISTAT.Google Scholar
  14. Guralnik, J.M., K.C. Land, D. Blazer, G.G. Filenbaum, and L.G. Branch. 1993. “Educational Status and Active Life Expectancy Among Older Blacks and Whites.” New England Journal of Medicine 329:110–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hardy, M.A. and E.K. Pavalko. 1986. “The Internal Structure of Self-Reported Health Measures Among Older Male Workers and Retirees.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 27:346–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayward, M.D. and M. Heron. 1999. “Racial Inequality in Active Life Among Adult Americans.” Demography 36:77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayward, M.D., A.M. Pienta, and D.K. McLaughlin. 1997. “Inequalities in Men’s Mortality: The Socio-Economic Status Gradient and Geographic Context.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38:313–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayward, M.D. and Z. Zhenmei. 2001. “Demography of Aging: A Century of Global Change, 1950–2050.” Pp. 69–85 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 5th ed., edited by R.K. Binstock and K. George. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jagger, C. 1999. “Health Expectancy Calculation by the Sullivan Method: A Practical Guide.” Nupri Research Papers Series, No. 68. Nihon University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  20. Katz, S., L.G. Branch, M.H. Branson, J.A. Papsidero, J.C. Beck, and D.S. Greer. 1983. “Active Life Expectancy.” New England Journal of Medicine 309:1218–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khu, D. and B. Ben-Shlomo. 1997. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Laditka, S.B. and D.A. Wolf. 1998. “New Methods for Analysing Active Life Expectancy.” Journal of Aging Health 10:214–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Land, K.L., J.M. Guralnik, and D.G. Blazer. 1994. “Estimating Increment-Decrement Life Tables With Multiple Covariates From the Panel Data: The Case of Active Life Expectancy.” Demography 31:297–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lindberg, G., G. Boström, and G. Persson. 1997. Sweden’s Public Health Report 1997. Spanga: National Board of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  25. Mare, R.D. 1990. “Socio-Economic Careers and Differentials Among Older Men in the United States.” Pp. 362–87 in Measurement Analysis of Mortality: A New Approach, edited by J. Vallin, S. D’Souza, and A. Palloni. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  26. Marmot, M.G. and M.J. Shipley. 1996. “Do Socioeconomic Differences in Mortality Persist After Retirement? 25 Year Follow Up of Civil Servants From the First Whitehall Study.” British Medical Journal 313:1177–80.Google Scholar
  27. Martelin, T. 1994. Differential Mortality at Older Ages: Socio-Demographic Mortality Differences Among Finnish Elderly. Helsinki: Finnish Demographic Society.Google Scholar
  28. Martelin, T., S. Koskinen, and T. Valkonen. 1998. “Socio-Demographic Mortality Differences Among the Oldest Old in Finland.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 53B(2):S83–90.Google Scholar
  29. Mathers, C.D. 1991. Health Expectancies in Australia 1981 and 1988. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health.Google Scholar
  30. Mesrine, A. 1999. “Les différences de mortalité par milieu social restent fortes.” Pp. 228–35 in INSEE La société française: données sociales 1999. Paris: INSEE.Google Scholar
  31. Moheau, M. 1994. Recherches et considérations sur la population de la France. 1778. Réédition annotée par E. Vilquin. Paris: INED/PUF.Google Scholar
  32. Moore, D.E. and M.D. Hayward. 1990. “Occupational Careers and Mortality of Elderly Men.” Demography 27:31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mormiche, P. 1995. “L’accès aux soins: évolution des inégalités entre 1980 et 1991.” Economie et Statistiques 282:3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nault, F., R. Roberge, and J.M. Berthelot. 1996. “Espérance de vie et espérance de vie en santé selon le sexe, l’état matrimonial et le statut socio-économique au Canada.” Cahier Québécois de Démographie 2:241–59.Google Scholar
  35. Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health. 1998. London: Her Majesty’s Stationer’s Office.Google Scholar
  36. Pavalko, E.K., G.H. Elder, and E.C. Clipp. 1993. “Worklives and Longevity: Insights From a Life Course Perspective.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34:363–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Petterson, H. 1995. “Längre och friskare liv för tjänstemän.” (Longer and Healthier Life for White-Collar Workers.) Välfärdsbulletin (1):10–13.Google Scholar
  38. Robine, J.M., C.D. Mathers. 1993. “Measuring the Compression or Expansion of Morbidity Through Changes in Health Expectancy.” Pp. 269–86 in Calculation of Health Expectancies: Harmonization, Consensus Achieved and Future Perspectives, edited by J.M. Robine, C.D. Mathers, M.R. Bone, and I. Romieu. Montrouge: John Libbey Eurotext.Google Scholar
  39. Robine, J.M. and P. Mormiche. 1993. “L’espérance de vie sans incapacité augmente.” INSEE Première 281:1–4.Google Scholar
  40. Robine, J.M., P. Mormiche, and C. Sermet. 1998. “Examination of the Causes and Mechanisms of the Increase in Disability-Free Life Expectancy.” Journal of Aging Health 10:171–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robine, J.M., I. Romieu, and E. Cambois. 1999. “Health Expectancy and Assessment of Populations’ Health Status.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77(2):181–85.Google Scholar
  42. Rogers, A., R.G. Rogers, and L.G. Branch. 1989. “A Multistate Analysis of Active Life Expectancy.” Public Health Reports 104:222–25.Google Scholar
  43. Ross, C.E. and C.L. Wu. 1995. “The Links Between Education and Health.” American Sociological Review 60:719–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sihvonen, A.P., A.E. Kunst, E. Lahelma, T. Valkonen, and J.P. Mackenbach. 1998. “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Expectancy in Finland and Norway in the Late 1980s.” Social Science Medicine 47:303–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sullivan, D.F. 1971. “A Single Index of Mortality and Morbidity.” HSMHA Health Report 86:347–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Surault, P. 1979. L’inégalité devant la mort: analyse socioéconomique de ses déterminants. Paris: Economica.Google Scholar
  47. Valkonen, T., A.P. Sihvonen, and E. Lahelma. 1997. “Disability-Free Life Expectancy by Level of Education in Finland.” Social Science Medicine 44:801–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van de Water, H.P.A, H.C. Boshuizen, and R.J.M. Perenboom. 1996. “Health Expectancy in the Netherlands: 1983-1990.” European Journal of Public Health 6:21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van den Bos, G. and P.J. van der Maas. 1993. “Social Inequalities in the Basic Components of Health Expectancy: Chronic Morbidity, Disability and Mortality.” Pp. 193–201 in Calculation of Health Expectancies: Harmonization, Consensus Achieved and Future Perspectives, edited by J.M. Robine, C.D. Mathers, M.R. Bone, and I. Romieu. Montrouge: John Libbey Eurotext.Google Scholar
  50. Vaupel, J.W., J.R. Carey, K. Christensen, T.E. Johnson, A.I. Yashin, N.V. Holm, I.A. Iachine, V. Kannisto, A.A. Khazaeli, P. Liedo, V.D. Longo, Y. Zeng, K.G. Manton, and J.W. Curtsinger. 1998. “Biodemographic Trajectories of Longevity.” Science 280:855–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Verbrugge, L.M. 1984. “Longer Life but Worsening Health? Trends in Health and Mortality of Middle-Aged and Older Persons.” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 62:474–512.Google Scholar
  52. — 1989. “The Twain Meet: Empirical Explanation of Sex Differences in Health and Mortality.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 30:282–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Verbrugge, L.M. 1997. “A Global Disability Indicator.” Journal of Aging Studies 11:337–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vita, A.J., R.B. Terry, H.B. Hubert, and J.F. Fries. 1998. “Aging, Health Risks, and Cumulative Disability.” New England Journal of Medicine 338:1035–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilkins, R. and O.B. Adams. 1983a. “Health Expectancy in Canada, Late 1970s: Demographic, Regional, and Social Dimensions.” American Journal of Public Health 73:1073–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. —. 1983b. Healthfulness of Life: A Unified View of Mortality, Institutionalization and Non-Institutionalized Disability in Canada, 1978. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization. 1998 “Health 21: The Health for All Policy for the WHO European Region: 21 Targets for the 21st Century.” Proceedings of the Regional Committee for Europe, 48th session, September 14–18, Copenhagen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuelle Cambois
    • 1
  • Jean-Marie Robine
    • 1
  • Mark D. Hayward
    • 2
  1. 1.Equipe Démographie et SantéCentre Val d’AurelleMontpellier 05France
  2. 2.Population Research InstituteThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations