Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 777–800 | Cite as

Family and neighborhood sources of socioeconomic inequality in children’s achievement

  • Narayan SastryEmail author
  • Anne R. Pebley
Article

Abstract

We examined family and neighborhood sources of socioeconomic inequality in children’s reading and mathematics achievement using data from the 2000–2001 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. To describe inequality in achievement scores, we used Gini coefficients and concentration indices and multilevel regression models. We found no inequality in children’s achievement by family income when other variables in the model were held constant. Mother’s reading scores and average neighborhood levels of income accounted for the largest proportion of inequality in children’s achievement. Neighborhood economic status appears to be strongly associated with children’s skills acquisition.

Keywords

Concentration Index Mathematics Achievement Lorenz Curve Socioeconomic Inequality Immigrant Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaronson, D. 1997. “Sibling Estimates of Neighborhood Effects.” Pp. 80–93 in Neighborhood Poverty, Volume II: Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods, edited by J. Brooks-Gunn, G.J. Duncan, and J.L. Aber. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  2. Aaronson, D. 1998. “Using Sibling Data to Estimate the Impact of Neighborhoods on Children’s Educational Outcomes.” Journal of Human Resources 33: 915–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aber, J.L., M. Gephart, J. Brooks-Gunn, J. Connell, and M.B. Spencer. 1997. “Neighborhood, Family and Individual Processes as They Influence Child and Adolescent Outcomes.” Pp. 44–61 in Neighborhood Poverty, Volume I: Context and Consequences for Development, edited by J. Brooks-Gunn, G.J. Duncan, and J.L. Aber. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Achen, C.H. 1982. Interpreting and Using Regression. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, J.W. 2002. “Why Does It Take a Village? The Mediation of Neighborhood Effects on Educational Achievement.” Social Forces 81: 117–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson, A.B. 1970. “On the Measurement of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Theory 2: 244–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brooks-Gunn, J., G.J. Duncan, and J.L. Aber, eds. 1997. Neighborhood Poverty, Volume I: Context and Consequences for Children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  8. Brooks-Gunn, J., G.J. Duncan, P.K. Klebanov, and N. Sealand. 1993. “Do Neighborhoods Affect Child and Adolescent Development?” American Journal of Sociology 99: 353–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caughy, M.O. and P.J. O’Campo. 2006. “Neighborhood Poverty, Social Capital, and the Cognitive Development of African American Preschoolers.” American Journal of Community Psychology 37: 141–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coleman, J.S. 1988. “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.” American Sociological Review 94(Suppl.): S95-S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowder, K. and S.J. South. 2003. “Neighborhood Distress and School Dropout: The Variable Significance of Community Context.” Social Science Research 32: 659–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeNavas-Walt, C. and R.W. Cleveland. 2002. “Money Income in the United States: 2001.” entCurr Population Reports, No. P60-218. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Downey, D.B., P.T. von Hippel, and B.A. Broh. 2004. “Are Schools the Great Equalizer? Cognitive Inequality During the Summer Months and the School Year.” American Sociological Review 69: 613–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duncan, G.J. and J.L. Aber. 1997. “Neighborhood Models and Measures.” Pp. 62–78 in Neighborhood Poverty, Volume I: Context and Consequences for Children, edited by J. Brooks-Gunn, G.J. Duncan, and J.L. Aber. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  15. Duncan, G.J. and S.W. Raudenbush. 1999. “Assessing the Effects of Context in Studies of Child and Youth Development.” Educational Psychologist 34: 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Entwisle, D.R. and K.L. Alexander. 1992. “Summer Setback: Race, Poverty, School Composition, and Math Achievement in the First Two Years of School.” American Sociological Review 57: 72–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —. 1994. “The Gender Gap in Math: Its Possible Origins in Neighborhood Effects.” American Sociological Review 59: 822–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farkas, G., P. England, K. Vicknar, and B.S. Kilbourne. 1997. “Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings Among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.” Social Forces 75: 913–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fischer, M.J. and J.A. Kmec. 2004. “Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions as Moderators of Family Resource Transmission: High School Completion Among At-Risk Youth.” Sociological Perspectives 47: 507–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ginther, D., R. Haveman, and B. Wolfe. 2000. “Neighborhood Attributes as Determinants of Children’s Outcomes: How Robust Are the Relationships?” Journal of Human Resources 35: 603–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gogtay, N., J.N. Giedd, L. Lusk, K.M. Hayashi, D. Greenstein, A.C. Vaituzis, T.F. Nugent III, D.H. Herman, L.S. Clasen, A.W. Toga, J.L. Rapoport, and P.M. Thompson. 2004. “Dynamic Mapping of Human Cortical Development During Childhood Through Early Adulthood.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 8174–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenland, S., J.J. Schlesselman, and M.H. Criqui. 1986. “The Fallacy of Employing Standardized Regression Coefficients and Correlations as Measure of Effect.” American Journal of Epidemiology 123: 203–208.Google Scholar
  23. Guo, G. and K.M. Harris. 2000. “The Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of Poverty on Children’s Intellectual Development.” Demography 37: 431–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hao, L. and D.Q. Naiman. 2007. Quantile Regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Hauser, R.M., J.R. Warren, M.-H. Huang, and W.Y. Carter. 2000. “Occupational Status, Education, and Social Mobility in the Meritocracy.” Pp. 179–229 in Meritocracy and Inequality, edited by K. Arrow, S. Bowles, and S. Durlauf. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Heckman, J.J. 2006. “Skill Formation and the Economics of Investing in Disadvantaged Children.” Science 312: 1900–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jargowsky, P.A. 1997. Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  28. Jencks, C. and S.E. Mayer. 1990. “The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood.” Pp. 111–86 in Inner City Poverty in the United States, edited by L.E. Lynn, Jr. and M.G.H. McGeary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  29. Jencks, C. and M. Phillips, eds. 1988. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kail, R. 2006. Children and Their Development. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Kakwani, N.C. 1977. “Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison.” Economic Journal 87: 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kakwani, N.C. 1980. Income Inequality and Poverty: Methods of Estimation and Policy Application. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kakwani, N., A. Wagstaff, and E. van Doorslaer. 1997. “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: Measurement, Computation, and Statistical Inference.” Journal of Econometrics 77: 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerckhoff, A.C., S.W. Raudenbush, and E. Glennie. 2001. “Education, Cognitive Skill, and Labor Force Outcomes.” Sociology of Education 74: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim, J.O. and G. Ferree. 1981. “Standardization in Causal Analysis.” Sociological Methods and Research 10: 187–210.Google Scholar
  36. King, G. 1986. “How Not to Lie With Statistics: Avoiding Common Mistakes in Quantitative Political Science.” American Journal of Political Science 30: 666–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klebanov, P.K., J. Brooks-Gunn, and G.J. Duncan. 1994. “Does Neighborhood and Family Poverty Affect Mother’s Parenting, Mental Health and Social Support?” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56: 441–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klebanov, P.K., J. Brooks-Gunn, P.L. Chase-Landsdale, and R.A. Gordon. 1997. “Are Neighborhood Effects on Young Children Mediated by Features of the Home Environment?” Pp. 119–45 in Neighborhood Poverty, Volume I: Context and Consequences for Development, edited by J. Brooks-Gunn, G. Duncan, and J.L. Aber. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  39. Kling, J.R., J.B. Liebman, and L.F. Katz. 2007. “Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects.” Econometrica 75: 83–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kochhar, R. 2004. “The Wealth of Hispanic Households: 1996 to 2002.” Pew Hispanic Center report. Available online at http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/34.pdf.Google Scholar
  41. Koenker, R. 2005. Quantile Regression. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kohen, D.E., J. Brooks-Gunn, T. Leventhal, and C. Hertzman. 2002. “Neighborhood Income and Physical and Social Disorder in Canada: Associations With Young Children’s Competencies.” Child Development 73: 1844–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Korbin, J. and C. Coulton. 1997. “Understanding the Neighborhood Context for Children and Families: Combining Epidemiological and Ethnographic Approaches.” Pp. 65–79 in Neighborhood Poverty Volume II: Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhood, edited by J. Brooks-Gunn, G.J. Duncan, and J.L. Aber. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Leventhal, T. and J. Brooks-Gunn. 2000. “The Neighborhoods They Live In: The Effects of Neighborhood Residence on Child and Adolescent Outcomes.” Psychological Bulletin 126: 309–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Logan, J.R., B.J. Stults, and R. Farley. 2004. “Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change.” Demography 41: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mayer, S. 1997. What Money Can’t Buy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. McCulloch, A. and H.E. Joshi. 2001. “Neighborhood and Family Influences on the Cognitive Ability of Children in the British National Child Development Study.” Social Science and Medicine 53: 579–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGrew, K.S., J.K. Werder, and R.W. Woodcock. 1991. WJ-R Technical Manual: A Reference on Theory and Current Research. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  49. McLoyd, V.C. 1990. “The Impact of Economic Hardship on Black Families and Children: Psychological Distress, Parenting and Socioemotional Development.” Child Development 61: 311–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Neckerman, K.M. and F. Torche. 2007. “Inequality: Causes and Consequences.” Annual Review of Sociology 33: 335–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Newey, W.K. and K.D. West. 1987. “A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix.” Econometrica 55: 703–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ogden, C.L., C.D. Fryar, M.D. Carroll, and K.M. Flegal. 2004. “Mean Body Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index, United States, 1960–2002.” Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics, No. 347. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  53. Oliver, M.L. and T.M. Shapiro. 1997. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Pong, S.L. and L.X. Hao. 2007. “Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children.” International Migration Review 41: 206–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pyatt, G., C.N. Chen, and J. Fei. 1980. “The Distribution of Income by Factor Components.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 95: 451–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rivkin, S.G., E.A. Hanushek, and J.F. Kain. 2005. “Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement.” Econometrica 73: 417–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sampson, R.J., J.D. Morenoff, and F. Earls. 1999. “Beyond Social Capital: Neighborhood Mechanisms and Structural Sources of Collective Efficacy for Children.” American Sociological Review 64: 633–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sampson, R.J., S.W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277: 918–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sampson, R.J., P. Sharkey, and S.W. Raudenbush. 2008. “Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 845–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sanbonmatsu, L., J.R. Kling, G.J. Duncan, and J. Brooks-Gunn. 2006. “Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results From the MTO Experiment.” Journal of Human Resources 41: 649–91.Google Scholar
  61. Sastry, N., B. Ghosh-Dastidar, J. Adams, and A.R. Pebley. 2006. “The Design of a Multilevel Survey of Children, Families, and Communities: The Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study.” Social Science Research 35: 1000–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shonkoff, J.P. and D. Phillips. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, J.P. 1995. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth in the Health and Retirement Study.” Journal of Human Resources XXX(Suppl.): S158-S183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Solon, G., M.E. Page, and G.J. Duncan. 2000. “Correlations Between Neighboring Children in Their Subsequent Educational Attainment.” Review of Economics and Statistics 82: 383–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Todd, P.E. and K.I. Wolpin. 2006. “The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School and Racial Test Score Gaps.” Unpublished manuscript. Available online at http://athena.sas.upenn.edu/~petra/papers/revpaper.pdf.Google Scholar
  66. Turley, R.N.L. 2003. “When Do Neighborhoods Matter? The Role of Race and Neighborhood Peers.” Social Science Research 32: 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Waber, D.P., C. De Moor, P.W. Forbes, C.R. Almli, K.N. Botteron, G. Leonard, D. Milovan, T. Paus, J. Rumsey, and the Brain Development Cooperative Group. 2007. “The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development: Performance of a Population Based Sample of Healthy Children Aged 6 to 18 on a Neuropsychological Battery.” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 13: 729–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wagstaff, A. 2002. “Inequality Aversion, Health Inequalities, and Health Achievement.” Journal of Health Economics 21: 627–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wagstaff, A., P. Paci, and E. van Doorslaer. 1991. “On the Measurement of Inequalities in Health.” Social Science and Medicine 33: 545–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wilson, W.J. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  71. Yeung, W.J., M.R. Linver, and J. Brooks-Gunn. 2002. “How Money Matters for Young Children’s Development: Parental Investment and Family Processes.” Child Development 73: 1861–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yitzhaki, S. 1983. “On an Extension of the Gini Inequality Index.” International Economic Review 24: 617–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Woodcock, R.W. and N. Mather. 1989. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery—Revised. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor
  2. 2.UCLA School of Public HealthUSA

Personalised recommendations