, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 429–449 | Cite as

Revisiting das gupta: Refinement and extension of standardization and decomposition

  • Albert Chevan
  • Michael Sutherland


Standardization and decomposition are established and widely used demographic techniques for comparing rates and means between groups with differences in composition. The difference in rates and means has heretofore been resolved in terms of the contribution of variables to compositional effects for each variable and an overall rate effect. This study demonstrates that the resolution of differences is attainable at the categorical level for both compositional effects and rate effects. Refinements to Das Gupta’s equations yield a complete decomposition because of the additivity of categorical compositional and rate effects. Other refinements allow the decomposition of polytomous variables. Extensions to the method provide for the decomposition of the standard deviation and the multivariate index of dissimilarity.


Rate Effect Compositional Effect Labor Force Participation Rate Composition Effect Crude Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bianchi, S.M. and N. Rytina. 1986. “The Decline in Occupational Sex Segregation During the 1970s: Census and CPS Comparisons.” Demography 23:79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Canudas-Romo, V. 2003. Decomposition Methods in Demography. Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Cho, L. and R.D. Retherford. 1973. “Comparative Analysis of Recent Fertility Trends in East Asia.” Pp. 163–81 in Proceedings of the 17th General Conference of the IUSSP August 1973, Vol. 2, edited by the International Union for the Scienti c Study of Population. Liege, Belgium: International Union for the Scienti c Study of Population.Google Scholar
  4. Das Gupta, P. 1987. “Comments on Suzanne M. Bianchi and Nancy Rytina’s ‘The Decline in Occupational Sex Segregation During the 1970s: Census and CPS Comparisons.’” Demography 24:291–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. — 1989. “Methods of Decomposing the Difference Between Two Rates With Applications to Race-Sex Inequality in Earnings.” Mathematical Population Studies 2:15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. — 1991. “Decomposition of the Difference Between Two Rates and Its Consistency When More Than Two Populations Are Involved.” Mathematical Population Studies 3:105–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. — 1993. “Standardization and Decomposition of Rates: A User’s Manual.” Current Population Reports Series P-23, No. 186. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. — 1994. “Standardization and Decomposition of Rates From Cross-Classi ed Data.” Genus 3:171–96.Google Scholar
  9. Durand, J.D. 1948. The Labor Force in the United States. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  10. Jaffe, A.J. 1951. Handbook of Statistical Methods for Demographers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  11. Kim, Y.J. and D.M. Strobino. 1984. “Decomposition of the Difference Between Two Rates With Hierarchical Factors.” Demography 21:361–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kitagawa, E.M. 1955. “Components of a Difference Between Two Rates.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 50:1168–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lichter, D.T. and J.A. Costanzo. 1987. “How Do Demographic Changes Affect Labor Force Participation of Women?” Monthly Labor Review 110:23–25.Google Scholar
  14. Shorrocks, A.F. 1980. “The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures.” Econometrica 48:613–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1984. “Detailed Occupation of the Experienced Civilian Labor Force by Sex for the United States and Regions: 1980 and 1970.” 1980 Census of the Population, Supplementary Report PC80-S1-15. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  16. Vaupel, J.W. and V. Canudas-Romo. 2002. “Decomposing Demographic Change Into Direct Versus Compositional Components.” Demographic Research, Vol. 7, Article 1:1-14. Available online at Scholar
  17. Wang, J., A. Rahman, H. Siegal, and J. Fisher. 2000. “Standardization and Decomposition of Rates: Useful Analytic Techniques for Behavior and Health Studies.” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 32:357–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wolfbein, S.L. and A.J. Jaffe. 1946. “Demographic Factors in Labor Force Growth.” American Sociological Review 11:392–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Chevan
    • 1
  • Michael Sutherland
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherst
  2. 2.University of MassachusettsAmherst

Personalised recommendations