Urbanization and fertility: An event-history analysis of Coastal Ghana
- 338 Downloads
In this article, we undertake an event-history analysis of fertility in Ghana. We exploit detailed life history calendar data to conduct a more refined and definitive analysis of the relationship among personal traits, urban residence, and fertility. Although urbanization is generally associated with lower fertility in developing countries, inferences in most studies have been hampered by a lack of information about the timing of residence in relationship to childbearing. We find that the effect of urbanization itself is strong, evident, and complex, and persists after we control for the effects of age, cohort, union status, and education. Our discrete-time event-history analysis shows that urban women exhibit fertility rates that are, on average, 11% lower than those of rural women, but the effects vary by parity. Differences in urban population traits would augment the effects of urban adaptation itself. Extensions of the analysis point to the operation of a selection effect in rural-to-urban mobility but provide limited evidence for disruption effects. The possibility of further selection of urbanward migrants on unmeasured traits remains. The analysis also demonstrates the utility of an annual life history calendar for collecting such data in the field.
KeywordsTotal Fertility Rate Fertility Decline Urban Residence Child Ever Bear Ghana Statistical Service
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brockerhoff, M. 1998. “Migration and the Fertility Transition in African Cities.” Pp. 357–90 in Migration, Urbanization, and Development: New Directions and Issues, edited by R.E. Bilsborrow. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Brockerhoff, M. and X. Yang. 1994. “Impact of Migration on Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Social Biology 41:19–43.Google Scholar
- Diop, F.P. 1985. “Internal Migrations, Nuptiality and Fertility” (translated). Pp. 73–104 in Nuptialite et Fecondite au Senegal. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
- Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2002. 2000 Population and Housing Census: Summary Report of Final Results. Accra: GSS.Google Scholar
- Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) and Macro International Inc. (MI). 1999. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 1998. Calverton, MD: GSS and MI.Google Scholar
- — 2004. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Calverton, MD: GSS and MI.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, S. and A. Goldstein. 1983. “Migration and Fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: An Analysis Using Life History Data.” Rand Corporation Report No. N-1860-AID. Rand, Santa Monica, CA.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. 2003. Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World. Panel on Urban Population Dynamics, M.R. Montgomery, R. Stren, B. Cohen, and H.E. Reed, eds., Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Oucho, J.O. and W.T.S. Gould. 1993. “Internal Migration, Urbanization, and Population Distribution.” Pp. 256–96 in Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by K.A. Foote, K.H. Hill, and L.G. Martin. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Owusu-Ansah, D. 1995. “The Society and Its Environment.” Pp. 59–128 in Ghana: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, D. and B.O. Tambashe. 2002. “Fertility Transition in Urban and Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Preliminary Evidence of a Three-Stage Process.” Journal of Africa Policy Studies 8:103–27.Google Scholar