Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 290–302 | Cite as

Evolution of Dioctahedral Vermiculite in Geological Environments—An Experimental Approach

  • Michał SkibaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Dioctahedral vermiculite commonly occurs in soils and fresh sediments, but has not been reported in sedimentary rocks. Little is known of the evolution of this mineral during diagenesis. According to the available literature, dioctahedral vermiculite is likely to exhibit strong potential for selective sorption and fixation of K+ involving interlayer dehydration and collapse. he objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of K+ saturation and seawater treatments on the structure o dioctahedral vermiculite. Due to the fact that no dioctahedral vermiculite standard reference material was available, a natural sample of soil clay containing dioctahedral vermiculite was used in the study. The clay was saturated with K+ using different protocols simulating natural processes taking place in soils and marine environments. The solid products of the experiments were analyzed for potassium content using flame photometry. The effect of the treatments used on the structure of dioctahedral vermiculite was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The percentages of the collapsed interlayers were estimated by modeling the XRD patterns based on a whole-pattern multi-specimen modeling technique. All the treatments involving K+ saturation caused K+ fixation and irreversible collapse (i.e. contraction to 10 Å) of at least a portion of the hydrated (vermiculitic) interlayers. Air drying of the K+-saturated samples greatly enhanced the degree of the collapse. The results obtained gave no clear answer as to whether time had had a significant effect on the degree to which irreversible collapse occurred. Selective sorption of K+ from artificial seawater was observed. These results clearly indicate that collapse of dioctahedral vermiculite is likely to occur in soils during weathering and in sediments during early diagenesis. Both processes need to be taken into consideration in sedimentary basin studies.

Key Words

Dioctahedral Vermiculite Early Diagenesis K+ Fixation K+ Selective Sorption Soil Illitization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey, S. W. (1980) Structures of Layer Silicates. Pp. 2–124 in: Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (G.W. Brindley and G. Brown, editors). Monograph 5, Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
  2. Bain, D. C., Mellor, A., and Wilson, M.J. (1990) Nature and origin of an aluminous vermiculitic weathering product in acid soils from upland catchments in Scotland. Clay Minerals, 25, 467–475.Google Scholar
  3. Barnishel, R. I. and Bertsch, P.M. (1989) Chlorites and hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and smectite. Pp. 729–788 in: Minerals in Soil Environments, 2nd edition (J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed, editors). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Barshad, I. (1950) The effect of the interlayer cations on the expansion of the mica type of crystal lattice. American Mineralogist, 35, 225–238.Google Scholar
  5. Berkgaut, V., Singer, A., and Stahr, K. (1994) Palagonite reconsidered: Paracrystalline illite-smectites from regoliths on basic pyroclastics. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 582–592.Google Scholar
  6. Bradley, W. F. and Weiss, E.J. (1961) A glycol-sodium vermiculite complex. Clays and Clay Minerals, 10, 117–122.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, G. and Brindley, G.W. (1980) X-ray diffraction procedures for clay mineral identification. Pp. 305–360 in: Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (G.W. Brindley and G. Brown, editors). Monograph 5, Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
  8. Claret, F., Sakharov, B.A., Drits, VA., Velde, B., Meunier, A., Griffault, L., and Lanson, B. (2004) Clay minerals in the Meuse-Haute Marne underground laboratory (France): possible influence of organic matter on clay mineral evolution. Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 515–532.Google Scholar
  9. Douglas, LA. (1989) Vermiculites. Pp. 635–668 in: Minerals in Soil Environments (J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed, editors). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Drits, VA. and Sakharov, B.A. (1976) X-ray Analysis of Mixed-layered Clay Minerals. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. Drits, V. A., Weber, F., Salyn, A.L., and Tsipursky, S.L. (1993) X-ray identification of one-layer illite varieties: Application to the study of illites around uranium deposits of Canada. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 389–398.Google Scholar
  12. Drits, V. A., Srodon, J., and Eberl, D.D. (1997) XRD measurements of mean crystallite thickness of illite and illite/smectite: reappraisal of the Kubler index and the Scherrer equation. Clays and Clay Minerals, 45, 461–475.Google Scholar
  13. Eberl, D. D., Srodon, J., and Northrop, H.R. (1986) Potassium fixation in smectite by wetting and drying. Pp. 296–326 in: Geochemical Processes at Mineral Surfaces (JA. Davis and K.F. Hayes, editors). American Chemical Society Symposium Series, v. 323.Google Scholar
  14. Ferrage, E., Lanson, B., Sakharov, B.A., and Drits, VA. (2005) Investigation of smectite hydration properties by modeling experimental X-ray diffraction patterns: Part I. Montmorillonite hydration properties. American Mineralogist, 90, 1358–1374.Google Scholar
  15. Ferrage, E., Lanson, B., Sakharov, B.A., Geoffroy, N., Jacquot, E., and Drits, V.A. (2007) Investigation of dioctahedral smectite hydration properties by modeling of X-ray diffraction profiles: Influence of layer charge and charge location. American Mineralogist, 92, 1731–1743.Google Scholar
  16. Ferrage, E., Lanson, B., Michot, L.J., and Robert, J.L. (2010) Hydration properties and interlayer organization of water and ions in synthetic Na-smectite with tetrahedral layer charge. Part 1. Results from X-ray diffraction profile modeling. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, 4515–4526.Google Scholar
  17. Guggenheim, S., Adams, J.M., Bain, D.C., Bergaya, F., Brigatti, M.F., Drits, VA., Formoso, M.L.L., Galán, E., Kogure, T., and Stanjek, H. (2006) Summary of recommen- dations of nomenclature committees relevant to clay mineralogy: report of the Association Internationale pour L’Etude des Argiles (AIPEA) Nomenclature committee for 2006. Clays and Clay Minerals, 54, 761–772.Google Scholar
  18. Howard, S. A. and Preston, K.D. (1989) Profile fitting of powder diffraction patterns. Pp. 217–275 in: Modern Powder Diffraction (D.L. Bish and J.E. Post, editors). Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Hubert, F., Caner, L., Meunier, A., and Lanson, B. (2009) Advances in the characterization of soil clay mineralogy using X-ray diffraction: from decomposition to profile fitting. European Journal of Soil Science, 60, 1093–1105.Google Scholar
  20. Inoue, A. (1984) Thermodynamic study of Na-K-Ca exchange reactions in vermiculite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 311–319.Google Scholar
  21. Jackson, M. L. (1969) Soil Chemical Analysis. Advanced Course, 2nd edition. Published by the author, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  22. Jagodzinski, H. (1949) Eindimensionale fehlordnung in kristallen und ihr einfluss auf die Röntgeninterferenzen: I Berechnung des fehlordnungsgrades aus der Röntgenintensitaten. Acta Crystallographica, 2, 201–207.Google Scholar
  23. Lanson, B., Sakharov, B.A., Claret, F., and Drits, V.A. (2009) Diagenetic smectite-to-illite transition in clay-rich sediments: a reappraisal of X-ray diffraction results using the multi-specimen method. American Journal of Science, 309, 476–516.Google Scholar
  24. Malla, P. B. (2003) Vermiculite. Pp. 766–769 in: Encyclopedia of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks (G. Middleton, editor). Springer, Dordrecht, Germany.Google Scholar
  25. Mehra, O. P. and Jackson, M.L. (1958) Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals, 7, 317–327.Google Scholar
  26. Méring, J. (1949) L’Inté reference des rayons X dans les systems a` stratification dé sordonnée. Acta Crystallographica, 2, 371–377.Google Scholar
  27. Moore, D. M. and Reynolds, R.C. (1997) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Nelson, B. W. (1958) Clay Mineralogy of the bottom sediments Rappahannock River, Virginia. Clays and Clay Minerals, 7, 135–147.Google Scholar
  29. Nelson, B. W. (1962) Clay mineral diageneis in the Rappahannock Estuary: an explanation. Clays and Clay Minerals, 11, 210.Google Scholar
  30. Olk, D. C., Cassman, K.G., and Carlson, R.M. (1995) Kinetics of potassium fixation in vermiculitic soils under different moisture regimes. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59, 423–429.Google Scholar
  31. Page, A. L., Bingham, F.T., Ganje, T.J., and Garber, M.J. (1963) Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 27, 323–326.Google Scholar
  32. Page, A. L., Burge, W.D., Ganje, T.J., and Garber, M.J. (1967) Potassium and ammonium fixation by vermiculitic soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 31, 337–341.Google Scholar
  33. Powers, M. C. (1953) Clay diagenesis in the Chesapeake Bay area. Clays and Clay Minerals, 2, 68–80.Google Scholar
  34. Price, J. R., Heitmann, N., Hull, J., and Szymanski, D. (2008) Long-term average mineral weathering rates from watershed geochemical mass balance methods: Using mineral modal abundances to solve more equations in more unknowns. Chemical Geology, 254, 36–51.Google Scholar
  35. Reynolds, R. C (1986) The Lorentz-polarization factor and preferred orientation in oriented clay aggregates. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 359–367.Google Scholar
  36. Reynolds, R. C. and Reynolds, R.C. III (1996) Newmod for Windows. The calculation of one-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns of mixed-layered clay minerals. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, 25 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Rich, C. I. and Black, W.R. (1964) Potassium exchange as affected by cation size, pH, and mineral structure. Soil Science, 97, 384–390.Google Scholar
  38. Righi, D., Velde, B., and Meunier, A. (1995) Clay stability in clay-dominated soil systems. Clay Minerals, 30, 45–54.Google Scholar
  39. Righi, D., Räisänen, M.L., and Gillot, F. (1997) Clay mineral transformations in podzolized tills in central Finland. Clay Minerals, 32, 531–544.Google Scholar
  40. Sawhney, B. L. (1972) Selective sorption and fixation of cations by clay minerals: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals, 20, 93–100.Google Scholar
  41. Scott, A. D. and Reed, M.G. (1964) Expansion of potassium-depleted muscovite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 13, 247–261.Google Scholar
  42. Simonsson, M., Hillier, S., and Oborn, I. (2009) Changes in clay minerals and potassium fixation capacity as a result of release and fixation of potassium in long-term field experiments. Geoderma, 151, 109–120.Google Scholar
  43. Skiba, M. (2003) Mineralogiczno-geochemiczne aspekty procesu bielicowania w glebach rozwiniĘtych na skalach krystalicznych w Tatrach. PhD thesis, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, 110 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Skiba, M. (2007) Clay mineral formation during podzolization in an alpine environment of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Clays and Clay Minerals, 55, 618–634.Google Scholar
  45. Skiba, M. and Skiba S. (2005) Chemical and mineralogical index of podzolization of the granite regolith soils. Polish Journal of Soil Science, 38, 153–162.Google Scholar
  46. Skiba, M., Szczerba, M., Skiba, S., Bish, D.L., and Grybos, M. (2011) The nature of interlayering in clays fom a podzol (spodosol) from the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Geoderma, 160, 425–433.Google Scholar
  47. Srodon, J. (1999) Use of clay minerals in reconstructing geological processes: recent advances and some perspective. Clay Minerals, 34, 27–37.Google Scholar
  48. Środoń, J. (2003) Mixed-layer clays. Pp. 447–450 in: Encyclopedia of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks (G. Middleton, editor). Springer, Dordrecht, Germany.Google Scholar
  49. Srodon, J. and Gaweł, A. (1988) Identyfikacja rentgenogra-ficzna mieszanopakietowych krzemianów warstwowych. Pp. 290–307 in: Metody Badan Mineralów i Skał (A. Bolewski and W. Żabiński, editors). Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  50. Whitehouse, U. G. and McCarter, R.S. (1956) Diagenetic modification of clay mineral types in artificial sea water. Clays and Clay Minerals, 5, 81–119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geological SciencesJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations