Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 151–158 | Cite as

Ti-Bearing Phases in the Huber Formation, an East Georgia Kaolin Deposit

  • Paul A. SchroederEmail author
  • Jason Shiflet
Article

Abstract

Six kaolin samples from the Lower Tertiary Huber Formation near Wrens, Georgia were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis, and magnetic susceptibility to characterize the Ti-bearing phases. Selected samples were treated with 5 M NaOH to remove kaolinite and concentrate the Ti-bearing phases for additional analysis. TiO2 content in the bulk fraction ranges from 1.2 to 5.4 wt. %. There are at least three Ti-bearing phases, including anatase, rutile, and a poorly defined nanocrystalline form. Anatase is most abundant and is commonly found with 010 faces in association with kaolinite edge and basal faces. The nanocrystalline form occurs at 0–1 wt. %, and rutile occurs in trace amounts. Bulk XRD analysis correlates well with the bulk TiO2 chemical measurements. Average anatase unit-cell parameters are a = 0.37908 ± 0.0002 nm and c = 0.951 ± 0.001 nm. These parameters indicate an approximate chemical formula of Fe3+0.05Ti4+0.95O1.95(OH)0.05.

The distribution of TiO2 content as a function of depth may be useful to obtain original grain-size variations associated with relative sea-level changes responsible for the deposition of the Huber Formation. Evidence for original depositional sediment properties can be seen in the occurrence of pseudomorphic replacement of micas and fecal pellets by kaolinite. Additional evidence for post-depositional changes includes the sub-micrometer euhedral character and low Fe content of the anatase (relative to soil-derived anatase). These observations for the Huber Formation are consistent with a previously published theory for kaolin genesis that includes biomineralization of originally coarser-grained aluminosilicates into a kaolinite-rich ore body.

Key Words

Anatase Georgia Huber Formation Kaolinite Rutile TiO2 Titanium X-ray Diffraction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anand, R.R. and Gilkes, R.J. (1984) Weathering of ilmenite in a lateritic pallid zone. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 363–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banfield, J.F., Penn, R.L., and Zhang, H. (1998) Defect formation and phase transformation in nanocrystalline titania. Geological Society of America Meeting, Toronto, Canada, Abstracts with Programs, Abstract 50550.Google Scholar
  3. Benoit, P.H. (1987) Adaptation to microcomputer of the Appleman-Evans program for indexing and least-squares refinement of powder diffraction data for unit-cell dimensions. American Mineralogist, 72, 1018–1019.Google Scholar
  4. Berner, R.A. (1970) Sedimentary pyrite formation. American Journal of Science, 268, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung, F.H. (1974) Quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of mixtures. II. Adiabatic principle of X-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 7, 526–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cullity, B.D. (1978) Elements of X-ray Diffraction. Addison-Wesly Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Massachusetts, 555 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J. (1992) An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals. Longman Group Limited, Hong Kong, 696 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Dodge, J.J. (1991) Estuarine transformation of fluvial khandite, coastal Georgia. M.S. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 91 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Dombrowski, T. (1993) Theories of origin for the Georgia kaolins: A review. In Kaolin Genesis and Utilization, H. Murray, W.M. Bundy, and C. Harvey, eds., The Clay Minerals Society, Boulder, Colorado, 75–98.Google Scholar
  10. Downs, R.T., Bartelmehs, K.L., Gibbs, G.V., and Boisen, M.B. (1993) Interactive software for calculating and displaying X-ray or neutron powder diffractometer patterns of crystalline materials. American Mineralogist, 78, 1104–1107.Google Scholar
  11. Doyle, L.J., Carder, K.L., and Steward, R.G. (1983) The hydraulic equivalence of mica. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 53, 643–648.Google Scholar
  12. Dydak, S.M. (1991) The hydraulic sorting of light and heavy minerals, heavy-mineral concentrations, and grain size. M.S. thesis, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. 90 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Hathaway, J.C. (1956) Procedure for clay mineral analysis used in the sedimentary petrology laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey. Minerals Bulletin, 3, 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hurst, V.J. (1997) Origins of the kaolins and associated bauxites. In 11th International Clay Conference Guidebook for the Field Trip to the Macon Area, Georgia, S.M. Pickering Jr., V.J. Hurst, and J.M. Elzea, eds., Association Internationale pour l’Etude des Argiles, Ottawa, Canada, 32–46.Google Scholar
  15. Hurst, V.J. and Pickering, S.M. (1997) Origin and classification of coastal-plain kaolins, southeastern USA, and the role of groundwater and microbial action. Clays and Clay Minerals, 45, 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hurst, V.J., Schroeder, P.A., and Styron, R.W. (1997) Accurate quantification of quartz and other phases by powder X-ray diffractometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 337, 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kampf, N. and Schwertmann, U. (1982) Quantitative determination of goethite and hematite in kaolinitic soils by X-ray diffraction. Clay Minerals, 17, 359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krumm, S. (1998) WinFit! v11.2. Computer Program for fitting peaks. Institut für Geologie Schlossgarten 5, Erlangen, Germany, 91054.Google Scholar
  19. Melear, N.D. (1998) Crystal properties of goethite and hematite from three weathering profiles of the Georgia Piedmont. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 115 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Pavich, M.J. (1989) Regolith residence time and the concept of surface age of the Piedmont “peneplain”. Geomorphology, 2, 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Raiswell, R. and Canfield, D.E. (1996) Rates of reaction between silicate iron and dissolved sulfide in Peru margin sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 2777–2787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schwertmann, U., Friedl, J., Pfab, G., and Gehring, A.U. (1995) Iron substitution in soil and synthetic anatase. Clays and Clay Minerals, 43, 599–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shaw, W.H.R. (1960) Studies in biogeochemistry—I: A biogeochemical periodic table: The data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 19, 196–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shiflet, J.E. (1999) Ti-bearing phases in an east-Georgia kaolin deposit. M.S. thesis, University of Georgia, Department of Geology, Athens, Georgia. 78 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Singh, B. and Gilkes, P.J. (1991) Concentration of iron oxides from soil clays by 5 M NaOH treatment: The complete removal of sodalite and kaolin. Clay Minerals, 26, 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Walker, R.G. (1992) Facies, facies models and modem stratigraphic concept: Facies models response to sea level change. In Facies Models, R.G. Walker and N.P. James, eds., Geological Association of Canada, St. Johns, New Foundland, Canada, 1–14.Google Scholar
  27. Weaver, C.E. (1976) The nature of TiO2 in kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 24, 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations