Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 678–681 | Cite as

Swelling of Formamide-Montmorillonite Complexes in Polar Liquids

  • Masanobu Onikata
  • Mitsuji Kondo
  • Shoji Yamanaka


A new osmotic-swelling system for montmorillonite with formamide (FA) is described. Water and a variety of polar organic liquids were used to swell FA-montmorillonite complexes. The post-swelling behavior of the complex is interpreted in terms of the bi-functionality of FA as an electron donor/acceptor and the magnitude of the donor number (DN) of the polar liquid relative to that of FA. The FA-montmorillonite complex shows limited swelling of d(001) <2.3 nm for polar liquids with DNs larger than that of FA. In contrast, the FA-montmorillonite complex shows osmotic swelling when the DN of the polar liquid is smaller than that of FA.

Key Words

Donor Number Formamide Montmorillonite Osmotic Swelling Polar Liquids Swelling 


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Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masanobu Onikata
    • 1
  • Mitsuji Kondo
    • 1
  • Shoji Yamanaka
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Applied Clay Technology (LACT)Hojun Kogyo Co., Ltd.Annaka, GunmaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of EngineeringHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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