Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 624–634 | Cite as

Cation Exchange Capacity of Layer Silicates and Palagonitized Glass in Mafic Volcanic Rocks: A Comparative Study of Bulk Extraction and In Situ Techniques

  • P. Schiffman
  • R. J. Southard
Article

Abstract

The cation exchange capacities (CEC) and extractable cations in smectite, corrensite and palagonitized glass from hydrothermally-altered pillow lavas and hyaloclastite breccias were measured by both bulk wet chemical and in situ microanalytical techniques. Smectite has CEC’s between 60 and 120 meq/100 g, palagonitized glass between 30 and 60 meq/100 g, and corrensite approximately 35 meq/100 g as determined by the in situ CsCl-exchange method. These experiments generally verify that Cs exchanges for those cations that are presumed (from the stoichiometry implied by microprobe analyses) to occupy interlayer sites in sheet silicates. Results of conventional CEC determinations are consistent with those determined by the in situ experiments: the individual microanalytical values for smectite and palagonitized glass bracket the bulk CEC values. The in situ experiments imply that Mg is the major extractable cation in smectite, Ca in corrensite, and both Mg and Ca in the palagonitized glass. We speculate that discrepancies between the equivalents of extractable cations predicted from elemental analysis and the equivalents of Cs sorbed may be due to the presence of charge-balancing protons that are not detected by the microprobe analyses. The sum of equivalents of cations extracted by NH4-acetate is about the same as the CEC determined by both the in situ and the bulk methods. Cation proportions indicated by NH4-acetate extractions from bulk samples are also generally consistent with the in situ results for all elements except Mg, which is a minor leachate of the NH4-acetate extractions in all the samples. To explain this discrepancy, we propose that 1) Mg may occupy structural sites within palagonitized glass, which inhibit its extraction by NH4 or Cs, and/or 2) there is a significant quantity of smectite, unsampled by the electron microprobe analyses, which contains insignificant interlayer Mg.

Key Words

Cation Exchange Capacity Corrensite Electron microprobe analysis Extractable cations Palagonite Smectite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey SW. 1982. Nomenclature for regular interstratifications. Am Mineral 67:394–398.Google Scholar
  2. Baldar NA, Whittig LD. 1968. Occurrence and synthesis of soil zeolites. Soil Sci Soc Am J 32:235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkgaut V, Singer A, Stahr K. 1994. Palagonite reconsidered: paracrystalline illite-smectites from regoliths on basic pyroclastics. Clays Clay Miner 42:582–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilgrami SA, Howie RA. 1960. The mineralogy and petrology of a rodingite dyke, Hindubaugh, Pakistan. Am Mineral 45:791–801.Google Scholar
  5. Dimroth E, Lichtblau AP. 1979. Metamorphic evolution of Archean hyaloclastites, Noranda area, Quebec, Canada. Part I: Comparison of Archean and Cenezoic sea-floor metamorphism. Can J Earth Sci 16:1315–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fumes H. 1984. Chemical changes during progressive subaerial palagonitization of a subglacial olivine tholeiite hyaloclastite: A microprobe study. Chem Geol 43:271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Golden DC, Morris RV, Ming DW, Lauer HV, Jr., Yang SR. 1993. Mineralogy of three slightly palagonitized basaltic tephra samples from the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 98:3401–3411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hay EL, Iijima A. 1968. Petrology of palagonitic tuffs of the Koko Craters, Oahu, Hawaii. Contributions Mineral Petrol 17:141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hillier S, Clayton T. 1992. Cation exchange ‘staining’ of clay minerals in thin-section for electron microscopy. Clay Miner 27:379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jackson ML. 1979. Soil chemical analysis-Advanced course, 2nd. ed. Madison, WI: M.L. Jackson. 895 p.Google Scholar
  11. Jakobsson SP, Moore JG. 1986. Hydrothermal minerals and alteration rates at Surtsey volcano, Iceland. Geol Soc Am Bull 97:648–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jercinovic MJ, Keil K, Smith MR, Schmitt RA. 1990. Alteration of basaltic glasses from north-central British Columbia, Canada. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2679–2696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinter EB, Diamond S. 1966. A new method for preparation and treatment of oriented-aggregate specimens of soil clays for x-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Sci 81:111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Petit J-C, Della Mea G, Dran J-C, Magonthier M-C, Mando PA. Paccagnella A. 1990. Hydrated-layer formation during dissolution of complex silicate glasses and minerals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:1941–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schiffman P, Fridleifsson GO. 1991. The smectite to chlorite transition in drillhole NJ-15, Nesjavellir geothermal field, Iceland: XRD, BSE, and electron microporbe investigations. J Metamor Geol 9:679–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schiffman P, Staudigel H. 1995. The smectite to chlorite transition in a fossil seamount hydrothermal system: the Basement Complex of La Palma, Canary Islands. J Metamor Geol 13:487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schiffman P, Staudigel H. 1994. Hydrothermal alteration of a seamount complex on La Palma, Canary Islands: Implications for metamorphism in accreted terranes. Geology 22: 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Singer A. 1974. Mineralogy of palagonitic material from the Golan Heights, Israel. Clays Clay Miner 22:231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual: Soil Survey Investigations Report 42, V. 2.0. USDA-Soil Conservation Service, Lincoln, NE. 400 p.Google Scholar
  20. Southard RJ. 1995. Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.Google Scholar
  21. Staudigel H. 1981. Der basale Komplex von La Palma. Submarine vulkanische prozesse, Petrologie, Geochemie und sekundare prozesse im herausgehobenen, submarinen Teil einer ozeanischen Insel [Ph.D. thesis]. Bochum, Germany: Ruhr University. 357 p.Google Scholar
  22. Staudigel H, Hart SR. 1983. Alteration of basaltic glass: mechanisms and significance for the oceanic cmst-seawater budget. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Staudigel H, Schmincke H-U. 1984. The Pliocene Seamount series of La Palma/Canary Islands. J Geophys Res 89: 11915–11215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thorseth IH, Fumes H, Tumyr O. 1995. Textural and chemical effects of bacterial activity on basaltic glass: an experimental approach. Chem Geol 119:139–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thorseth IH, Fumes H, Tumyr O. 1991. A textural and chemical study of Icelandic palagonite of varied composition and its bearing on the mechanism of glass-palagonite transformation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:731–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Whittig LD, Allardice WR. 1986. X-ray diffraction techniques. Methods of soil analysis, Part 1: Physical and mineralogic methods, Agronomy Monograph no. 9. American Society of Agronomy—Soil Science of America, p 331–362.Google Scholar
  27. Zhou Z, Fyfe WS. 1989. Palagonitization of basaltic glass from DSDP Site 335, Leg 37: Textures, chemical composition, and mechanism of formation. Am Mineral 74:1045–1053.Google Scholar
  28. Zhou Z, Fyfe WS, Tazaki K, van der Gaast SI. 1992. The structural characteristics of palagonite from DSDP Site 335. Can Mineral 30:75–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Schiffman
    • 1
  • R. J. Southard
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept of GeologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Dept of Land, Air and Water ResourcesUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations