Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 515–524 | Cite as

Lead-210 Derived Sedimentation Rates from a North Louisiana Paper-Mill Effluent Reservoir

  • William N. Pizzolato
  • René A. De Hon
Article

Abstract

Lower Wham Brake is a cypress, rim-swamp artificially enclosed in 1950 as a 22 km2 industrial reservoir by the International Paper Company (IPC)-Bastrop Mill, for regulating downstream water quality. Sediment cores were examined by XRD to differentiate paper-mill effluent deposition from the underlying detrital sediments and by 210Pb decay spectroscopy to determine sediment accretion rates.

Anatase and kaolin from the IPC paper-mill effluent delineated a well-defined, anthropic, silty-clay, A horizon above a clay, 2Ag horizon. Anatase concentrations were no greater than 1.7% in the A horizon and was absent in the underlying 2Agl horizon. Kaolin deposition was significantly correlated to the A horizon by an average increase of 84% above the kaolinite detrital background. Pyrite was detected in the A horizon as a transformation mineral following sulfur reduction of the paper-mill effluent.

Five of the six sediment cores showed an inflection in the excess 210Pb activity profile consistent with a present-day reduction in sediment supply. The average modern sedimentation rate was 0.05 cm yr−1. Average sedimentation observed during historic accretion was 0.22 cm yr−1, about 4.4 times greater than the modern rate of accretion. Reduction in sediment accretion can be attributed to upstream levees completed in 1934 and loss of organic accumulation following the 1950 reservoir impoundment. However, radiometric dating could not precisely correlate the geochronology of kaolin/anatase introduction due to complex oxidation/reduction cycles concurrent with the modern accretion regime.

Key Words

Anatase Applied sedimentation Kaolin Lead-210 Paper-mill effluent Pyrite Wetland degradation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benoit, G. 1988. The biogeochemistry of 210Pb and 210Po in fresh waters and sediments: Ph.D. dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Cambridge, 304 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Benoit G., and H. F. Hemond. 1990. 210Pb and 210Po re-mobilization from lake sediments in relation to iron and manganese cycling. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 1224–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benoit G., and H. F. Hemond. 1991. Evidence for diffusive redistribution of 210Pb in lake sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55: 1963–1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berner, R. A. 1970. Sedimentary pyrite formation. Am. J. Sci. 268: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Connell, W. E., and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1968. Sulfate reduction in soil: Effects of redox potential and pH. Science 159: 86–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flynn, W. W. 1968. The determination of low levels of polonium-210 in environmental materials. Anal. Chim. Acta 43: 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Folk, R. L. 1974. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Austin, Texas: Hemphill Publishing Company, 184 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Gambrell, R. P., R. A. Khalid, and W. H. Patrick Jr. 1976. Physiochemical parameters that regulate mobilization and immobilization of toxic heavy metals. In Proceedings of the Specialty Conference on Dredging and its Environmental Effects. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 418–434 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Gotoh S., and W. H. Patrick Jr. 1974. Transformation of iron in a waterlogged soil as influenced by redox potential and pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38: 66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldberg, E. D. 1963. Geochronology with 210Pb in Radioactive Dating. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 121–131.Google Scholar
  11. Jackson, M. L. 1969. Soil Chemical Analysis-Advanced Course. M. L. Jackson ed. Madison, Wisconsin: 895 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Koide M., K. W. Bruland, and E. D. Goldberg. 1973. Th-228/Th-232 and Pb-210 geochronologies in marine and lake sediments Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37: 1171–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kearney, M. S., L. G. Ward, C. M. Cofta, G. R. Helz, and T. M. Church. 1985. Sedimentology, geochronology and trace metals in the Nanticoke and Choptank Rivers, Chesapeake Bay. In Tech. Rep. No. 84. College Park: University of Maryland, 94 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Krishnaswamy S., D. Lal, J. M. Martin, and M. Meybeck. 1971. Geochronology of lake sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 11: 407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils 1991. Hy-dric Soils of the United States, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: USDA-Soil Conservation Service.Google Scholar
  16. Nittrouer, C. A., R. W. Sternberg, R. Carpenter, and J. T. Bennet. 1979. The use of Pb-210 geochronology as a sed-imentological tool: application to the Washington continental shelf. Mar. Geol. 31: 297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nittrouer, C. A., D. J. DeMaster, B. A. McKee, N. H. Cutshall, and I. L. Larson. 1984. The effect of sediment mixing on Pb-210 accumulation rates for the Washington continental shelf. Mar. Geol. 54: 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oldfield F., and P. G. Appleby. 1984. Empirical testing of 210Pb-dating models for lake sediments. In Lake Sediments and Environmental History. E. Y. Hayworth and J. W. G. Lund, eds. University of Minnesota Minneapolis: Press, 93–124.Google Scholar
  19. Orson, R. A., R. L. Simpson, and R. E. Good. 1990. Rates of sediment accumulation in a tidal freshwater marsh. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 60 (6): 859–869.Google Scholar
  20. Pizzolato, W. N. 1994. X-ray diffraction study of sediments from a paper-mill effluent reservoir, Ouachita and Morehouse Parishes, Louisiana. The Compass, 70: 4.Google Scholar
  21. Reynolds, E. F., E. T. Allen, T. L. May, and T. A. Weems. 1985. Soil Survey of Morehouse Parish Louisiana: Washington D.C.: USDA-Soil Conservation Service, 175 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Richardson J., P. A. Straub, K. C. Ewel, and H. T. Odum. 1983. Sulfate-enriched water effects on a floodplain forest in Florida. Envir. Management 74: 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Robbins, J. A. 1978. Geochemical and geophysical applications of radioactive lead. In The Biogeochemistry of Lead in the Environment. J. Nriagu, ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 284–393.Google Scholar
  24. Robbins J. A., and D. N. Edgington. 1975. Determination of recent sedimentation rates in Lake Michigan using Pb-210 and Cs-137. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39: 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Satawathananont S., W. H. Patrick Jr., and P. A. Moore Jr. 1991. Effect of controlled redox conditions on metal solubility in acid sulfate soils. Plant and Soil 133: 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saucier, R. 1967. Geological investigation of the Boeuf-Tensas Basin, Lower Mississippi Valley. Technical Report 3–757. Vicksburg: U.S. Army Corps of Engineer WES, 57 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Schultz, L. G. 1964. Quantitative interpretation of miner-alogical composition from x-ray and chemical data for the Pierre Shale: Professional Paper 391-C, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington D. C, 31 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Shukla, B. S., and S. R. Joshi. 1989. An evaluation of the CIC model of 210Pb dating of sediments. Environ. Geol. Water Sci. 14(1): 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soil Survey Staff 1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy: 5th ed., SMSS Technical Monograph No. 19, Pocahontas Press, Blacksburg, Virginia, 541 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Spoljaric, N. 1971. Quick preparation of slides of well-oriented clay minerals for x-ray diffraction analysis. J. Sed. Petrol. 41: 589–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spoljaric, N. 1972. Reply to Comment on ‘Quick preparation of slides of well-oriented clay minerals for x-ray diffraction analysis’. J. Sed. Petrol. 42: 249–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vepraskas, M. J. 1992. Redoximorphic features for identifying aquic conditions. In Tech. Bull. 301. North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 33 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Whitcomb, J. H., R. D. DeLaune, and W. H., Patrick Jr. 1989. Chemical oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur: Its possible role in marsh energy flow. Mar. Geol. 26: 205–214.Google Scholar
  34. Wise, S. M. 1980. Caesium-137 and Lead-210: a review of the techniques and some applications in geomorphology. In Timescales in Geomorphology. R. A. Cullingford, D. A. Davidson, and J. Lewin, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 110–127.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • William N. Pizzolato
    • 1
  • René A. De Hon
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Army Corps of EngineersWaterways Experiment Station Geotechnical Laboratory, CEWES-GG-YHVicksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeosciencesNortheast Louisiana UniversityMonroeUSA

Personalised recommendations