Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 639–644 | Cite as

The Near-Infrared Combination Band Frequencies of Dioctahedral Smectites, Micas, and Illites

  • James L. Post
  • Paul N. Noble


The highest frequency near-infrared (NIR) combination bands for specimens of four species of mica—montmorillonite-beidellite, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite—were correlated with respect to Al2O3 content. A direct linear correlation was found between the combination band positions and the Al2O3 contents of the montmorillonite-beidellite series, which may be given as: ν̄ cm−1 = (5.38 ± 0.04) (% Al2O3) + (4412.8 ± 0.9). A similar linear correlation for muscovite is: ν̄ cm−1 = (6.10 ± 0.25) (% Al2O3) + (4434.1 ± 8.3).

Possible NIR band interferences are shown for different mineral mixtures, along with the correlation of different illites with muscovite. No combination bands were found in the frequency region 4425 cm−1 to 4625 cm−1 for specimens in which the Al2O3 content was only in the tetrahedral layer sites.

Key Words

Al content Dioctahedral smectites Micas NIR spectra 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cariati, F., Erre, L., Piu, P., and Gessa, C. (1981) Water molecules and hydroxyl groups in raontmorillonites as studied by near-infrared spectroscopy: Clays & Clay Minerals 29, 157–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cariati, F., Erre, L., Micera, G., Piu, P., and Gessa, C. (1983a) Polarization of water molecules in phylosilicates in relation to exchange cations as studied by near-infrared spectroscopy: Clays & Clay Minerals 31, 155–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cariati, F., Erre, L., Micera, G., Piu, P., and Gessa, C. (1983b) Effects of layer charge on the near-infrared spectra of water molecules in smectites and vermiculites: Clays & Clay Minerals 31, 447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, R. N., King, T. V. V., Klejwa, M., Swayze, G. A., and Vergo, N. (1990) High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals: Jour. Geophys. Research 95, No. 138, 12, 653–12, 680.Google Scholar
  5. Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J. (1962) Rock-Forming Minerals S: John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, 226–228.Google Scholar
  6. Farmer, V. C. (1974) The larger silicates: in The Infrared Spectra of Minerals: Mineralogical Society, London, 331–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Higgins, C. T. and Streitz, R. (1988) Application of remote sensing to California’s geology: California Geology 41, 123–133.Google Scholar
  8. Hunt, G. R. and Salisbury, J. W. (1970) Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks. I. Silicate minerals: Modern Geol. 1, 283–300.Google Scholar
  9. Hunt, G. R., Salisbury, J. W., and Lenhoff, C. J. (1973) Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks. VI. Additional silicates: Modern Geol. 4, 96–101.Google Scholar
  10. Hunt, G. R. (1977) Spectral signatures of particulate minérals in the visible and near-infrared: Geophysics, 42, 501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jepson, W. B., and Rowse, J. B. (1975) The composition of kaolinite—An electron microscope micro probe study: Clays & Clay Minerals 23, 310–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kral, S. (1990) Advances in exploration technology are crucial for gold companies in the 1990s: Mining Engr. 42, 255–263.Google Scholar
  13. Lin, F.-C. and Clemency, C. V. (1981) Dissolution kinetics of phlogopite. I. Closed system: Clays & Clay Minerals 29, 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindgren, W. (1899) The gold and sil ver veins of Sil ver City, DeLamar and other mining districts of Idaho: 20th Annual Report, Part III, USGS, 135–140.Google Scholar
  15. Logan, L. M., Hunt, G. R., Salisbury, J. W., and Balsamo, S. R. (1973) Compositional implications of Christiansen frequency maximum for infrared remote sensing applications: J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. MacEwan, D. M. C. (1951) The montmorillonite minerals (montmorillonoids): in X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals, G. W. Brindley, ed., Mineralogical Society, London, 104–107.Google Scholar
  17. MacEwan, D. M. C. (1961) Montmorillonite minerals: in The X-ray Identification and Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals, 2nd ed., G. Brown, ed., Mineralogical Society, London, 167–169.Google Scholar
  18. Pietracaprina, A., Novelli, G., and Rinaldi, A. (1972) Notes—Bentonite deposit at Uri, Sardinia, Italy: Clay Minerals 9, 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Piper, A. M. and Laney, F. B. (1926) Geology and metal-liferrous resources of the region about Silver City, Idaho: Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Bull. 11, 145 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Post, J. L. (1981) Expansive soils. Volume change and expansion pressure of smectites: California Geology 34, 197–203.Google Scholar
  21. Post, J. L. and Burnett, J. L. (1985) Roscoelite type locality: California Geology 38, 99–103.Google Scholar
  22. Post, J. L. (1988) Elemental analyses of mica resources in California: California Geology 41, 3–13.Google Scholar
  23. Post, J. L. and Austin, G. S. (1993) Geochemistry of micas from Precambrian rocks of Northern New Mexico: N.M. Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Circular 202, 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Shannon, E. V. (1923) Notes on the mineralogy of three gouge clays from precious metal veins: Proceedings of the United States National Museum 62, 1–4.Google Scholar
  25. Stubican, V. and Roy, R. (1961) Isomorphous substitution and infrared spectra of the layer-lattice silicates: Amer. Mineral. 46, 33–50.Google Scholar
  26. Vedder, W. (1964) Correlations between infrared spectrum and chemical compositions of mica: Amer. Mineral 49, 736–768.Google Scholar
  27. Weaver, C. E. and Pollard, L. D. (1973) The Chemistry of Clay Minerals: Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 65.Google Scholar
  28. Weir, A. H. and Greene-Kelly, R. (1962) Beidellite: Amer. Mineral. 47, 137–146.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • James L. Post
    • 1
  • Paul N. Noble
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering and Chemistry DepartmentCalifornia State UniversitySacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations