Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 353–359 | Cite as

Effect of Prolonged Aging on the Transformation of Short-Range Ordered Aluminum Precipitation Products Formed in the Presence of Organic and Inorganic Ligands

  • A. Violante
  • L. Gianfreda
  • P. Violante
Article

Abstract

More than 40 samples of Al precipitation products formed in the presence of organic (aspartic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, salicylic, and tannic acid, and acetylacetone) and inorganic (chloride, sulfate and phosphate) ligands, which were short-range-ordered materials after 2–5 months of aging, were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination after prolonged periods of aging in the mother liquids (from 7–15 years). Noncrystalline materials were found after 7–10 years of aging in samples formed in the presence of citrate, tartrate, and tannate at pH ≤ 8.0 and at ligand/Al molar ratios (R) ranging from 0.05–0.1; they were found as well in the presence of phosphate and malate at ligand/Al molar ratios from 0.1–0.5. Poorly crystalline Al-oxyhydroxides (pseudoboehmite) without Al(OH)3 polymorphs were found in solutions with a wide range of pH (from 6.0–11.0) in the presence of tartrate, citrate, tannate, malate, salicylate, sulfate, and phosphate after 7–15 years. The crystallinity of these samples was indeed very poor. On the contrary, gibbsite formation was observed in samples formed at pH 7.0 or 8.0 in the presence of oxalate (R = 0.1 or 1.0), aspartate (R = 0.1 and 0.5), malate (R = 0.03 or 0.17), salicylate (R = 0.05), and in samples containing very high concentrations of chloride (R = 700 or 1000). Finally, the formation of gibbsite was promoted in the presence of montmorillonite, but some samples at pH ≤ 6.0 in the presence of citrate (R = 0.1), tartrate (R = 0.1), or tannate (R = 0.02 or 0.1) showed after 6 years of aging interstratification of OH-Al species in the interlayers of the clay mineral and complete lack of Al(OH)3 polymorphs.

Key Words

Aging Gibbsite Montmorillonite Noncrystalline Al products Pseudoboehmite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldcroft, D., Bye, G. C., and Hughes, C. A. (1969) Crystalline process in aluminum hydroxide gels. IV. Factors influencing the formation of the crystalline trihydroxides: J. Appl. Chem. 19, 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnhisel, R. I. and Bertsch, P. M. (1989) Chlorites and hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and smectite: in Minerals in Soil Environments, J. B. Dixon and S. B. Weed, eds., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, Wisconsin, 729–788.Google Scholar
  3. Buondonno, A., Felleca, D., and Violante, A. (1989) Properties of organo-mineral complexes formed by different addition sequences of hydroxy-Al, montmorillonite, and tannic acid: Clays & Clay Minerals 37, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hsu, P. H. (1967) Effect of salts on the formation of bay erite vs pseudoboehmite: Soil Sci. 103, 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hsu, P. H. (1973) Effect of sulfate on the crystallization of aluminum hydroxide from aging hydroxy-aluminum solutions: in Proc. Int. Congr. on Studies of Bauxite and Aluminum Oxides-Hydroxides (Nice, France), 3rd ed., J. Nicolas, Ed., ICSOBA, Imprimeries Reunies de Chambery, Chambery, France, 613–620.Google Scholar
  6. Hsu, P. H. (1979) Effect of phosphate and silicate on the crystallization of gibbsite from OH-Al solutions: Soil Sci. 127, 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hsu, P. H. (1989) Aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides: in Minerals in Soil Environments, J. B. Dixon and S. B. Weed, eds., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison, Wisconsin, 331–378.Google Scholar
  8. Hsu, P. H. and Bates, T. F. (1964) Formation of X-ray amorphous and crystalline aluminum hydroxides: Mineral. Mag. 33, 749–768.Google Scholar
  9. Huang, P.M. (1988) Ionic factors affecting aluminum transformations and the impact on soil and environmental sciences: Advances in Soil Science 8, 1–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang, P. M. and Violante, A. (1986) Influence of organic acids on crystallization and surface properties of precipitation products of aluminum: in Interactions of Soil Minerals with Natural Organics and Microbes, P. M. Huang and M. Schnitzer, eds., SSSA Spec. Publ. 17, 159–221.Google Scholar
  11. Kodama, H. and Schnitzer, M. (1980) Effect of fulvic acid on the crystallization of aluminum hydroxides: Geoderma 24, 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kwong, N. K. K. F. and Huang, P. M. (1975) Influence of citric acid on the crystallization of aluminum hydroxides: Clays & Clay Minerals 23, 164–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kwong, N. K. K. F. and Huang, P. M. (1979) Nature of hydrolytic precipitation products of aluminum as influenced by low molecular weight complexing organic acids, Proc 6th Int. Clay Conf. Oxford, England 1978, M. M. Mortland and V. C. Farmer, eds., 27, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 527–536.Google Scholar
  14. Serna, C. J., White, J. L., and Hem, S. L. (1977) Anionaluminum hydroxide gel interactions: Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 1009–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tettenhorst, R. and Hofmann, A. (1980) Crystal chemistry of boehmite: Clays & Clay Minerals 28, 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Violante, A. (1985) Effect of perturbing anions on the nature of short-range ordered precipitation products of aluminum: Miner. Petrogr. Acta 29-A, 371–379.Google Scholar
  17. Violante, A. and Huang, P. M. (1984) Characteristics and surface properties of pseudoboehmites formed in the presence of selected organic and inorganic ligànds: Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1193–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Violante, A. and Huang, P. M. (1985) Influence of inorganic and organic ligands on the formation of aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides: Clavs & Clay Minerals 33, 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Violante, A. and Huang, P. M. (1989) Influence of oxidation treatments on surface properties and reactivities of short-range ordered precipitation products of aluminum: Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 1402–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Violante, A. and Huang, P. M. (1992) Effect of tartaric acid and pH on the nature and physicochemical properties of short-range ordered aluminum precipitation products: Clays & Clay Minerals 40, 462–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Violante, A. and Jackson, M. L. (1979) Crystallization of nordstrandite in citrate systems in the presence of mont-morillonite: in Proc. Int. Clay Conf. Oxford, 1978, M. M. Mortland and V. C. Farmer, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 517–525.Google Scholar
  22. Violante, A. and Jackson, M. L. (1981) Clay influence on the crystallization of aluminum hydroxide polymorphs in the presence of citrate, sulfate, or chloride: Geoderma 25, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Violante, A., Palmieri, F., and Buondonno, A. (1989) Influence of temperature and aging on the development of order of Al-oxyhydroxides: TRA VA UX 19(22), 341–349.Google Scholar
  24. Violante, A. and Violante, P. (1978) Influence of carboxylic acids on the stability of chlorite-like complexes and on the crystallization of Al(OH)3 polymorphs: Agrochimica 22, 335–343.Google Scholar
  25. Violante, A. and Violante, P. (1980) Influence of pH, concentration and chelating power of organic anions on the synthesis of aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides: Clays & Clay Minerals 28, 425–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wefer, K. and Bell, G. M. (1972) Oxides and hydroxides of aluminum: in Aluminum Co. Am., Tech. Rep. No. 19, Alcoa Research Laboratories, 52 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Violante
    • 1
  • L. Gianfreda
    • 1
  • P. Violante
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Chimico-AgrarieUniversità di Napoli “Federico II”PorticiItaly

Personalised recommendations