Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 385–395 | Cite as

Shape-Selective Sorbents Based on Clay Minerals: A Review

  • R. M. Barker
Article

Abstract

A review is presented of work carried out over the last 40 years on non-porous sorbents and on microporous shape-selective sorbents derived from palygorskite, smectite, and vermiculite. Among such materials four kinds of behavior were observed. In some systems uptake was restricted to external surfaces; in others, intercalation also occurred but only above threshold pressures. If the interlayer region was completely filled by long-chain organic cations, imbibition was possible, but in amounts which were very strongly dependent upon the cohesive energy density of the sorbate. Finally, in certain permanently expanded derivatives of layer silicates intercalation proceeded without any threshold pressure, just as in zeolites.

In this latter group, micropores existed which sometimes resulted in shape-selective sorption and molecule sieving. The micropores in clay minerals were modified by varying the size and shape of the interlayer cations, their charge, and the charge density of the siliceous layers. The interplay of these factors was investigated and the micropore sorbents were shown to be highly effective in the separation of mixtures.

Key Words

Adsorption Imbibition Intercalation Palygorskite Porosity Shape-selective Smectite Vermiculite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barrer, R. M. (1978) Zeolites and Clay Minerals as Sorbents and Molecular Sieves: Academic Press, New York, pp. 474, 476.Google Scholar
  2. Barrer, R. M. (1984) Sorption and molecular sieve properties of clays and their importance as catalysts: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 311, 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrer, R. M. (1986) Expanded clay minerals: A major class of molecular sieves: J. Inclusion Phenomena 4, 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrer, R. M. and Brummer, K. (1963) Relations between partial ion exchange and interlamellar sorption in alkylammonium montmorillonites: Trans. Faraday Soc. 59, 959–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrer, R. M. and Craven, R. J. B. (1987) Smectite molecular sieves. Part II. Expanded fluorhectorite sorbents: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I 83, 779–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrer, R. M. and Hampton, M. G. (1957) Gas chromatography and mixture isotherms in alkylammonium bentonites: Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 1462–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrer, R. M. and Jones, D. L. (1970) Chemistry of soil minerals. Part VIII. Synthesis and properties of fluorhectorites: J. Chem. Soc. A, 1531–1537.Google Scholar
  8. Barrer, R. M. and Jones, D. L. (1971) Chemistry of soil minerals. Part X. Shape-selective sorbents derived from fluorhectorites: J. Chem. Soc. A, 2594–2603.Google Scholar
  9. Barrer, R. M. and Kelsey, K. E. (1961a) Thermodynamics of interlamellar complexes. Part I. Hydrocarbons in meth-ylammonium montmorillonites: Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 452–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrer, R. M. and Kelsey, K. M. (1961b) Thermodynamics of interlamellar complexes. Part II. Hydrocarbons in di-methyldioctadecylammonium bentonite: Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 625–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrer, R. M. and Mackenzie, N. (1954) Sorption by attapulgite. Part I. Availability of intracrystalline channels: J. Phys. Chem. 58, 560–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrer, R. M., Mackenzie, N., and (in part) MacLeod, D. M. (1954) Sorption by attapulgite. Part II. Selectivity shown by attapulgite, sepiolite and montmorillonite for n-paraffins: J. Phys. Chem. 58, 568–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barrer, R. M. and MacLeod, D. M. (1954) Intercalation and sorption by montmorillonite: Trans. Faraday Soc. 50, 980–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrer, R. M. and MacLeod, D. M. (1955) Activation of montmorillonite by ion exchange and sorption complexes of tetra-alkylammonium montmorillonites: Trans. Faraday Soc. 51, 1290–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrer, R. M. and Millington, A. D. (1967) Sorption and intracrystalline porosity in organoclays: J. Coll. Interface Sci. 25, 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrer, R. M. and Perry, G. S. (1961a) Sorption of mixtures and selectivity in alkylammonium montmorillonites. Part I. Monomethylammonium bentonite: J. Chem. Soc, 842–849.Google Scholar
  17. Barrer, R. M. and Perry, G. S. (1961b) Sorption of mixtures and selectivity in alkylammonium montmorillonites. Part II. Tetramethylammonium montmorillonite: J. Chem. Soc., 850–858.Google Scholar
  18. Barrer, R. M. and Reay, J. S. S. (1957) Sorption and intercalation by methylammonium montmorillonites: Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 1253–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunauer, S. (1944) The Physical Adsorption of Gases and Vapours: Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, p. 150.Google Scholar
  20. Craven, R. J. B. (1976) Sorption and separation by ion-exchanged synthetic fluorhectorites: Ph.D. thesis, London University, pp. 164, 231.Google Scholar
  21. Vaughan, D. E. W. (1988) Recent developments in pillared interlayered clays: Preprint from Perspectives in Molecular Sieve Science, W. H. Flank and T. E. Whyte, Jr., eds., Amer. Chem. Soc. Symposium, Toronto, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Barker
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentImperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations