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Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 3–14 | Cite as

Some Results of the Study of Clay Minerals in the U.S.S.R.

  • F. V. Chukhrov
Article

Abstract

Clay mineral studies in the U.S.S.R., mainly since 1960, are summarized. Electron diffraction techniques especially have been developed and used extensively. Methods have been developed for simultaneous recording of DTA curves and other properties. Polytypism of phyllosilicates has been studied intensively by Zvyagin and others. Much new information on the structure and morphology of halloysites has been obtained by electron-optical methods. Other clay minerais extensively studied include allophanes, kaolinites, chlorites (“donbassite” is preferred to “sudoite” for dioctahedral varieties), alushtite (or tosudite), monothermite, and various zinc-bearing clays. Much attention has been given to physico-chemical and colloid-chemical properties. The natural occurrence and alteration of clays and clay minerais are described in weathering and oxidation zones, in soils, and in Recent and Ancient sediments. Primary clay minerais of hydrothermal origin are described.

Résumé

Des études sur les miné raux argileux en U.R.S.S. effectuées surtout depuis 1960, sont résumées ici. Des techniques employant la diffraction d’électrons ont été spécialement développées et utilisées de façon extensive. Des méthodes ont été développées pour l’enregistrement simultané de courbes DTA et antres propriétés. Les différents types sous lesquels se manifestent les phyllosilicates ont été étudiés intensément par Zvyagin et antres chercheurs. Une grande quantité d’informations nouvelles sur la structure et la morphologie d’halloysites a pu être obtenue par des méthodes optiques et employant les électrons. Les autres minéraux argileux qui ont été étudiés de manière extensive sont les allophanes, les kaolinites, les chlorures (“donbassite” est préféré à “sudoite” pour les variétés dioctraédriques), l’alushtite (ou tosudite), le monothermite et les différentes argiles porteuse de zinc. Une grande attention a été donné aux propriétés physico-chimiques et colloido-chimiques, k’apparition naturelle et l’altération des argiles et des minéraux argileux sont décrites pour les zones climatiques et d’oxidation, pour les sols, et pour les sédiments récents et anciens, Les premiers minéraux argileux d’origine hydrothermique sont décrits.

Kurzreferat

Es wird ein Überblick über die Tonmineralforschung in der Sowjet Union, vor allem seit 1960, gegeben. In erster Linie sind Elektronen-beugungstechniken entwickelt und in weitem Umfang angewendet, worden. Es wurden Methoden für die gleichzeitige Aufzeichnungen von DTA Kurven und anderer Eigenschaften entwickelt. Der Polytypismus von Phyllosilikaten wurde von Zvyagin und anderen gründlich studiert. Durch elektronen-optische Methoden konnten neue Erkenntnisse über den Aufbau und die Morphologie von Halloysiten gewonnen werden. Andere eingehend untersuchte Tonminerale umfassen Allophene, Kaolinite, Chlorite (für oktahedrale Sorten wird “Donbassit” an Stelle von “Sudoit” vorgezogen), Alushtit (oder Tosudit), Monothermit und verschiedene zinkhaltige Tone. Grosse Beachtung wurde den physikalisch-chemischen und kolloid-chemischen Eigenschaften geschenkt. Das natürliche Vorkommen und die Veränderungen des Tons und der Tonminerale in Verwitterungs-und Oxydations-zonen, in Böden und in neueren sowie in alten Ablagerungen werden behandelt. Primäre Tonminerale hydrothermalen Ursprungs werden beschrieben.

Резюме

Приводится сводка работ, предпринятых в СССР по глинистым минералам, главным образом с 1960г. Преимущественно усовершенствовали методы электронной диффракции и они широко применяются. Усовершенствованы методы одновременной записи кривых DTА и других характеристик. Звягин и другие интенсивно исследовали политипизм филлосиликатов. Многие новые сведения о структуре и морфологии галлаузитов были получены, пользуясь приемами электронной оптики. Другие глинистые минералы, которые изучались в значительной степени, включают аллофаны, каолиниты, хлориты (причем предпочитают пользоваться донбасситом, а не судоитом для диоктоздрических разновидностей, алуштит (или тосудит), монотермит и разные цинк-содержащие глины. Много внимания уделяется физикохимическим и колоидно-химическим свойствам. Природное нахождcние и изменение глни и глинистых минералов описывается в зонах выветривания и окисления, в почвенных слоях, а также в недавних и древних осадках. Описываются первичные глинистые минералы гидротермального происхождения.

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Copyright information

© Clay Minerals Society 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. V. Chukhrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and GeochemistryAcademy of Sciences of U.S.S.R.MoscowU.S.S.R.

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