Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 307–316 | Cite as

Suction Responses Due to Homogeneous Shear of Dilute Montmorillonite-Water Pastes

  • Charles D. Ripple
  • Paul R. Day
General

Abstract

A recently described phenomenon, the shear induced decrease of moisture suction in saturated clay—water systems and its subsequent recovery, has been investigated with the aid of a parallel plate shearing device. The apparatus allowed a more quantitative description of the phenomenon than was previously possible. In 4–6% Na-montmorillonite pastes it demonstrated a well defined suction response to shear oven for shear angles as small as one degree. The observed decrease in suction was rapid at first. It terminated within a few minutes and was followed by an approximately exponential, occasionally incomplete recovery. All the tests carried out exhibited the same general features of suction change.

It is postulated that shear induces a displacement or change in configuration of particles and that subsequently they return to their original states due to thermal motion. The shapes of the recovery curves can be interpreted in terms of the relaxation spectrum functions encountered in linear viscoelasticity theory. By utilizing a characteristic relaxation time for these spectra, rate process theory has been employed to interpret the bonding mechanism in terms of the experimental activation free energy. The results suggest that the bonds which are re-established during the recovery are primarily of the Coulombic type.

Shear induced suction changes should be considered when dealing with deformation theories and structural models of wet soils and clays. Indeed they provide a means of testing certain aspects of soil structure.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alfrey, T., Jr., and Gubnee, E. F. (1956) Dynamics of viscoelastic behavior: pp. 387–429 in Rheology, Theory and Applications: Academic Press, Inc., New York, I, 761 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barshad, I. (1962) Personal communication.Google Scholar
  3. Bernal, J. D. (1958) Structure arrangements of macromolecules: Disc. Faraday Soc. 25, 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burgers, J. M., and Scott Blair, G. W. (1948) Report on the principles of rheological nomenclature (Joint Committee on Rheology of the International Council of Scientific Unions): Proc. Internat. Rheologic Congress, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  5. Campanella, R. G. (1965) Effect of temperature and stress on the time-deformation behavior of saturated clay: Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, R. M. (1962) A study of some aspects of cation exchange in soils: Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  7. Christensen, R. W., and Wu, T. H. (1964) Analysis of clay deformation as a rate process: Jour. Soil Mech. and Found. Div., Amer. Soc. Civil Engs., Proc. Paper 4147, pp. 125–57.Google Scholar
  8. Day, P. R. (1954—56) Effect of shear on water tension in saturated clay: Reports to Western Regional Technical Committee W-30.Google Scholar
  9. Day, P. R., and Ripple, C. D. (1966) Effect of shear on suction in saturated clays: (Submitted to Proc. Soil Science Soc. Amer.).Google Scholar
  10. Glasstone, S., Laidler, K. J., and Eyring, H. (1941) The Theory of Rate Processes: Ed. 1, McGraw-Hill, New York, 611 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Kittel, C. (1962) Introduction to Solid-state Physics: John Wiley, New York, 617 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Kolaian, J. H., and Low, P. F. (1962) Thermodynamic properties of water in suspensions of montmorillonite: Clays and Clay Minerals, Proc. 9th Conf., Pergamon Press, New York, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Langmuir, I. (1938) The role of attractive and repulsive forces in the formation of tactoids, thixotropic gels, protein crystals and coacervates: Jour. Chem. Phys. 6, 873–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leonard, R. A., and Low, P. F. (1964) Effect of gelation on the properties of water in clay systems: Clays and Clay Minerals, Proc. 12th Conf., Pergamon Press, New York, 311–25.Google Scholar
  15. Low, P. F. (1960) The viscosity of water in clay systems: Clays and Clay Minerals, Proc. 8th Conf., Pergamon Press, New York, 170–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marvin, R. S. (1962) Derivation of the relaxation spectrum representation of the mechanical response function: Natl. Bur. Stds. Jour. Res. 66A, 349–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maxwell, J. C. (1867) On the dynamical theory of gases: Philos. Trans. 157, 49–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mitchell, J. K. (1964) Shearing resistance of soils as a rate process: Jour. Soil Mech. and Found. Div., Amer. Soc. Civil Engs. 90, No. SM1, Proc. Paper 3773, 29–61.Google Scholar
  19. Mitchell, J. K., and Campanella, R. G. (1963) Creep studies on saturated clays: Symposium on Laboratory Shear Testing of Soils: ASTM-NRC, Ottawa, Canada, ASTM Special Tech. Publ. No. 361.Google Scholar
  20. Muriyama, S., and Shibata, T. (1961) Rheological properties of clays: Proc. Fifth Internat. Conf. Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., 269–73.Google Scholar
  21. Ree, T., and Eyring, H. (1958) The relaxation theory of transport phenomena, pp. 83–144 in Rheology, Theory and Applications, II, F. R. Eirich, editor: Academic Press, Inc., New York, 591 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Reece, J. M. (1959) Subaudio tunable amplifier: Electronics, Nov. 6 issue.Google Scholar
  23. Ripple, C. D. (1965) Some physical responses to shear in montmorillonite-water systems: Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  24. Shuler, K. E. (1959) Relaxation processes in multistate systems: Physics of Fluids 2, 442–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shuler, K. E., Anderson, Y., and Weiss, G. M. (1962) Studies in non-equilibrium rate processes, V. The relaxation of moments derived from a master equation: Jour. Math. Phys. 3, 550–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Clay Minerals Society 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles D. Ripple
    • 1
  • Paul R. Day
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soils and Plant NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations