Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 22–38 | Cite as

X-Ray and Infrared Data on Hectorite-Guanidines and Montmorillonite-Guanidines

  • Carl W. Beck
  • George Brunton
Article

Abstract

Clay-organic complexes of the clay minerals sodium hectorite and sodium montmorillonite with the hydrochlorides of guanidine, amino-guanidine, methylguanidine, and triamino-guanidine were examined for thermal stability by the oscillating-heating x-ray technique. Completely exchanged complexes increase the thermal stability of these two clays by as much as 275°C.

Infrared analyses were also made on these same clay-organic complexes. There is a marked difference between the infrared patterns of the clay—organic complexes and the patterns of the clays or the organic salts alone. More experimental work must be done before it will be possible to interpret completely the clay-organic infrared patterns.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ames, L. L., Jr., Sand, L. B. and Goldich, S. S. (1958) A contribution on the Hector, California, bentonite deposit: Econ. Geol., v. 53, pp. 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birks, L. S. and Friedman, H. (1917) A high temperature x-ray diffraction apparatus: Rev. Sci. Instrum., v. 18, pp. 578—580.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley, W. F. (1945a) Molecular associations between montmorillonite and some polyfunctional organic liquids: J. Amer. Chem. Soc., v. 67, pp. 975–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley, W. F. (1945b), Diagnostic criteria for clay minerals: Amer. Min., v. 30, pp. 704–713.Google Scholar
  5. Bryden, John H. (1957) The crystal structure of aminoguanidine hydrochloride: Acta Cryst., v. 10, pp. 677–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Curtis, R. M. and Pasternak, R. A. (1955) The crystal structure of methylguanidinium nitrate: Acta Gryst., v. 8, pp. 675–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drenth, J., Drenth, W., Vos, Aafje and Wiebenga, E. H. (1953) On the crystal structure of guanidinium bromate: Acta Gryst., v. 6, p. 424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ensminger, L. E. and Gieseking, J. E. (1939) The adsorption of proteins by montmorillonitic clays: Soil Sci., v. 48, pp. 467–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ensminger, L. E. and Gieseking, J. E. (1941) Adsorption of proteins by montmorillonite clays and its effect on base-exchange capacity: Soil Sci., v. 51, pp. 125—132.Google Scholar
  10. Gieseking, J. E. (1939) The mechanism of cation exchange in the montmorillonite—beidellite-nontronite type of clay minerals: Soil Sci., v. 47, pp. 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gieseking, J. E. and Jenny, Hans (1936) Behavior of polyvalent cations in base exchange: Soil Sci., v. 42, pp. 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grim, R. E. (1953) Clay Mineralogy: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 384 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greene-Kelly, R. (1955a) Sorption of aromatic organic compounds by montmorillonite, Part 1, Orientation studies: Trans. Faraday Soc., v. 51, pp. 412–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greene-Kelly, R. (1955b) Sorption of aromatic organic compounds by montmorillonite, Part 2, Packing studies with pyridine: Trans. Faraday Soc., v. 51, pp. 424—430.Google Scholar
  15. Hendricks, S. B. (1941) Base exchange of the clay mineral montmorillonite for organic cations and its dependence upon adsorption due to van der Waals’ forces: J. Phys. Chem., v. 45, pp. 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. MacEwan, D. M. C. (1944) Identification of the montmorillonite group of minerals by x-rays: Nature, Lond., v. 154, pp. 577–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacEwan, D. M. C. (1946) The identification and estimation of the montmorillonite group of clay minerals with special reference to soil clays: J. Soc. Chem. Ind., Lond., v. 65, pp. 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Okaya, Yoshiharu and Pepinsky, Ray (1957) Crystal structure of triaminoguanidinium chloride: Acta Cryst., v. 10, pp. 681–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pauling, Linus (1930) The structure of micas and related minerals: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S., v. 16, pp. 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rowland, R. A., Weiss, E. J. and Bradley, W. F. (1956) Dehydration of monoionic montmorillonites: in Clays and Clay Minerals, Natl. Acad. Sci.—Natl. Research Council, pub. 456, pp. 85–95.Google Scholar
  21. Rowland, R. A., Weiss, E. J. and Lewis, D. R. (1959) Apparatus for the oscillating-heating method of x-ray powder diffraction: J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., v. 42, pp. 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Weiss, E. J. and Rowland, R. A. (1956) Oscillating-heating x-ray diffractometer studies of clay mineral dehydroxylation: Amer. Min., v. 41, pp. 117—126.Google Scholar
  23. Weiss, E. J. and Rowland, R. A. (1956) Effect of heat on vermiculite and mixed-layered vermiculite-chlorite: Amer. Min., v. 41, pp. 899–914.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 1959

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl W. Beck
    • 1
    • 2
  • George Brunton
    • 1
  1. 1.The Pure Oil CompanyResearch CenterCrystal LakeUSA
  2. 2.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations