The Effect of Clays on the Permeability of Reservoir Sands to Waters of Different Saline Contents
The average results of air- and water-permeability determinations are given for petroleum-reservoir sands in three Wyoming fields. The average amounts of materials of clay size in the sands and the types of clays present, as identified by X-ray diffraction methods, are also presented and discussed.
The sands are shown to be more permeable to air than to brines and more permeable to brines than to fresh water. Each of the sands exhibited different behavior when wetted by waters, and the percentage loss of permeability to waters, as compared to air, varied from sand to sand. The sand containing kaolins, illites, and mixed-layer clay (illite-montmorillonite) was found to be the most sensitive to water, and the sand containing only small amounts of kaolins and illites was the least sensitive. The sand that contained the most kaolins and illites was intermediate in water sensitivity. The water-permeability behavior of the sands and the dependence of this behavior on the clays present and the salinity of the water are discussed.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Petroleum Institute (1951) Reference clay minerals: API Research Project 49, Columbia University, N.Y.Google Scholar
- Bertness, T. A. (1953) Observations of water damage to oil productivity: API Drilling and Production Practice, pp. 287–295.Google Scholar
- Brindley, G. W. (editor) (1951) X-ray identification and structure of clay minerals: The Mineralogical Society, London, pp. 49–115.Google Scholar
- Cox, B. B. (1950) Influence of clay in oil production: World Oil, vol. 131, No. 7, pp. 174–182.Google Scholar
- Fancher, G. H., Lewis, J. A., and Barnes, K. B. (1933) Some physical characteristics of oil sands: Pa. State College, Min. Ind. Exp. Sta. Bull. 12, p. 141.Google Scholar
- Griffiths, J. C. (1946) Clay research in oil development problems: Jour. Inst. Pet. Tech., vol. 32, No. 265, pp. 18–31.Google Scholar
- Grim, R. E. (1951) Clay mineralogy and the petroleum industry: World Oil, vol. 132, No. 4, pp. 61–68.Google Scholar
- Hughes, R. V. (1950) The application of modem clay concepts to oil field developments: API Drilling and Production Practice, pp. 151–167.Google Scholar
- Hughes, R. V., and Pfister, R. J. (1947) Advantages of brines in secondary recovery of petroleum by water flooding: Petroleum development and technology: Trans. Am. Inst. Mining and Met. Engrs., vol. 170, pp. 187–201.Google Scholar
- Johnston, N., and Beeson, C. M. (1945) Water permeability of reservoir sands: Petroleum development and technology: Trans. Am. Inst. Mining and Met. Engrs., vol. 160, pp. 43–55.Google Scholar
- Muskat, M. (1949) Physical principles of oil production: McGraw-Hill Book Company, N.Y., pp. 123–142.Google Scholar
- Nowak, T. J., and Krueger, R. F. (1951) The effect of mud filtrates and mud particles upon the permeability of cores: API Drilling and Production Practice, pp. 164–181.Google Scholar
- Sherborne, J. E., and Fischer, P. W. (1949) Use of improved drilling fluids in well completion: World Oil, vol. 122, No. 7, pp. 112–126.Google Scholar
- Wade, F. R. (1947) The evaluation of completion practice from productivity-index and permeability data: API Drilling and Production Practice, pp. 186–214.Google Scholar