Advertisement

Clays and Clay Minerals

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 145–156 | Cite as

Origin of allophane and retardation of pebble weathering in quaternary marine terrace deposits

  • Gi Young JeongEmail author
  • Jin Han Bae
  • Chang Sik Cheong
Article

Abstract

Quaternary marine terrace deposits consisting of gravels interbedded with thin sandy gravel layers have been subjected to subaerial weathering. Restricted to the sandy gravel layers, allophane gel either replaced bytownite sands to form a pseudomorph or coated the pebbles. The allophane has an average Al/Si atomic ratio of 1.5 with 45% H2O. The sandy gravels were originally rich in bytownite (av. An86) sands derived from underlying Tertiary basaltic lapilli tuff. The highly soluble and aluminous bytownite favored the formation of allophane. In the sandy gravel layers, pebbles coated with allophane gel were almost fresh whereas those in the gravel layers were highly weathered to form halloysite-rich clays. Allophane gels acted as a somewhat impermeable geochemical barrier impeding a mineral-water reaction in the bytownite-rich sandy gravel layers and thus significantly retarding pebble weathering, while prolonged weathering in the gravel layers resulted in the severe decomposition of pebbles. Bytownite protected the pebbles against weathering, implying that minor soluble minerals might be one of the factors in the natural variation of the weathering rates of rocks and sediments.

Key Words

Allophane Bytownite Gravel Marine Terrace Weathering 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bain, D.C., Ritchie, P.F.S, Clark, D.R. and Duthie, D.M.L. (1980) Geochemistry and mineralogy of weathered basalt from Morvern, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 865–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bockheim, J.G., Kelsey, H.M. and Marshall, J.G. III (1992) Soil development, relative dating, and correlation of late Quaternary marine terraces in southwestern Oregon. Quaternary Research, 37, 60–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blum, A.E. and Stillings, L.L. (1995) Feldspar dissolution kinetics. Pp. 291–351 in: Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicates (A.F. White and S.L. Brantley, editors). Reviews in Mineralogy, 31. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Childs, C.W., Hayashi, S. and Newman, R.H. (1999) Five-coordinate aluminum in allophane. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47, 64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Courchesne, F., Turmel, M.-C. and Beauchemin, P. (1996) Magnesium and potassium release by weathering in Spodosols: grain surface coating effects. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1188–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eggleton, R.A. (1987) Noncrystalline Fe-Si-Al-oxyhydroxides. Clays and Clay Minerals, 35, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eggleton, R.A., Foudoulis, C. and Varkevisser, D. (1987) Weathering of basalt: changes in rock chemistry and mineralogy. Clays and Clay Minerals, 35, 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farmer, V.C. (1984) Distribution of allophane and organic matter in podzol B horizons: reply to Buurman and van Reeuwijk. Journal of Soil Science, 35, 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feijtel, T.C.J., Jongmans, A.G. and van Doesburg, J.D.J. (1989) Identification of clay coatings in an old Quaternary terrace of the Allier, Limagne, France. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53, 876–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaines, R., Skinner, H.C., Foord, E.E., Mason, B. and Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana’s New Mineralogy. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1819 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Goldich, S.S. (1938) A study in rock weathering. Journal of Geology, 46, 17–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Henmi, T. and Wada, K. (1976) Morphology and composition of allophane. American Mineralogist, 61, 379–390.Google Scholar
  13. Jeong, G.Y. (1998a) Formation of vermicular kaolinite from halloysite aggregates in the weathering of plagioclase. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeong, G.Y. (1998b) Vermicular kaolinite epitactic on primary phyllosilicates in the weathering profiles of anorthosite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jeong, G.Y. (2000) The dependence of localized crystallization of halloysite and kaolinite on primary minerals in the weathering profile of granite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jeong, G.Y. and Kim, S.J. (1993) Boxwork fabric of halloysite-rich kaolin formed by weathering of anorthosite in Sancheong area, Korea. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeong, G.Y. and Lee, B.Y. (1998) Weathering of plagioclase in Palgongsan granite. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 34, 44–57.Google Scholar
  18. Jeong, G.Y., Kim, S.J., Kim, Y.H. and Cho, H.G. (1995) Kaolinite formation by weathering of biotite in Sancheong kaolin. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, 8, 37–45.Google Scholar
  19. Jongmans, A.G., Veldkamp, E., van Breemen, N. and Staritsky, I. (1993) Micromorphological characterization and micro-chemical quantification of weathering in an alkali basalt pebble. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jongmans, A.G., van Oort, F., Buurman, P., Jaunet, A.M. and van Doesburg, J.D.J. (1994) Morphology, Chemistry and Mineralogy of isotropic aluminosilicate coatings in a Guadeloupe Andisol. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 501–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jongmans, A.G., Verburg, P., Nieuwenhuyse, A. and van Oort, F. (1995) Allophane, imogolite, and gibbsite in coatings in a Costa Rican Andisol. Geoderma, 64, 327–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jongmans, A.G., Denaix, L., van Oort, F. and Nieuwenhuyse, A. (2000) Induration of C horizons by allophane and imogolite in Costa Rican volcanic soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 254–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kwon, S.T., Ree, J.H., Park, Y. and Rhodes, E.J. (1999) An active fault in the southeastern Korean peninsula: Evidence from optically stimulated luminescence dating. P. 27 in: Abstracts with Program of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of Korea, Seosan, Korea.Google Scholar
  24. Langley-Turnbaugh, S.J. and Bockheim, J.G. (1997) Time-dependent changes in pedogenic processes on marine terraces in coastal Oregon. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 1428–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee, B.J., Ryoo, C.-R. and Chwae, U. (1999) Quaternary faults in the Yangnam area, Kyongju, Korea. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 35, 1–14.Google Scholar
  26. Lee, D.Y. (1985) Quaternary deposits in the coastal fringe of the Korean Peninsula. Ph.D. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, 290 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Murakami, T., Kogure, T., Kadohara, H. and Ohnuki, T. (1998) Formation of secondary minerals and its effect on anorthite dissolution. American Mineralogist, 83, 1209–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newman, A.C.D. and Brown, G. (1987) The chemical constitution of clays. Pp. 1–128 in: Chemistry of Clays and Clay Minerals (A.C.D. Newman, editor). Mineralogical Society, London.Google Scholar
  29. Nesbitt, H.W. and Wilson, R.E. (1992) Recent chemical weathering of basalt. American Journal of Science, 292, 740–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nugent, M.A., Brantley, S.L., Pantano, C.G. and Maurice, P.A. (1998) The influence of natural mineral coatings on feldspar weathering. Nature, 395, 588–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parfitt, R.L. and Furkert, R.J. (1980) Identification and structure of two types of allophane from volcanic ash soils and tephra. Clays and Clay Minerals, 28, 328–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parfitt, R.L. and Kimble, J.M. (1989) Conditions of formation of allophane in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53, 971–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sieffermann, G. and Millot, G. (1969) Equatorial and tropical weathering of recent basalts from Cameroon: allophanes, halloysite, metahalloysite, kaolinite, and gibbsite. Pp. 417–430 in: Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, Tokyo (L. Heller, editor). Israel University Press, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  34. Sudo, T., Shimoda, S., Yotsumoto, H. and Aita, S. (1981) Electron Micrographs of Clay Minerals. Kodansha and Elsevier, Tokyo, 203 pp.Google Scholar
  35. van der Gaast, S.J., Wada, K., Wada, S.-I. and Kakuto, Y. (1985) Small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, morphology, and structure of allophane and imogolite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 33, 237–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Oort, F., Jongmans, A.G. and Jaunet, A.M. (1994) The progression from optical light microscopy to transmission electron microscopy in the study of soils. Clay Minerals, 29Google Scholar
  37. Veldkamp, E., Jongmans, A.G., Feijtel, T.C., Veldkamp, A. and van Breeman, N. (1990) Alkali basalt gravel weathering in Quaternary Allier river terraces, Limagne, France. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54, 1043–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wada, K. (1989) Allophane and Imogolite. Pp. 1051–1087 in: Minerals in Soil Environments (J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed, editors). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  39. Wada, K. and Yoshinaga, N. (1969) The structure of imogolite. American Mineralogist, 54, 50–71.Google Scholar
  40. Welch, S.A. and Ullman, W.J. (1996) Feldspar dissolution in acidic and organic solutions: Compositional and pH dependence of dissolution rate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 2939–2948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Clay Minerals Society 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gi Young Jeong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jin Han Bae
    • 1
  • Chang Sik Cheong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesAndong National UniversityAndongSouth Korea
  2. 2.Isotope Research TeamKorea Basic Science InstituteTaejonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations