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Augmented Reality Navigation Plus Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging Can Accurately Guide Laparoscopic Anatomical Segment 8 Resection



Laparoscopic anatomical Segment 8 (S8) resection is a highly challenging hepatectomy. Augmented reality navigation (ARN), which could be combined with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging, has been applied in various complex liver resections and may also be applied in laparoscopic anatomical S8 resection. However, no study has explored how to apply ARN plus ICG fluorescence imaging (ARN–FI) in laparoscopic anatomical S8 resection, or explored its accuracy.

Patients and Methods

This study is a post hoc analysis that included 31 patients undergoing laparoscopic anatomical S8 resection from the clinical NaLLRFI trial, and the resected liver volume was measured in each patient. The perioperative parameters of safety and feasibility, as well as the accuracy analysis outcomes were compared.


There were 16 patients in the ARN–FI group and 15 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic hepatectomy without ARN or fluorescence imaging (non-ARN–FI group). There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Compared with the non-ARN–FI group, the ARN–FI group had lower intraoperative bleeding (median 125 vs. 300 mL, P = 0.003). No significant difference was observed in other postoperative short-term outcomes. Accuracy analysis indicated that the actual resected liver volume (ARLV) in the ARN–FI group was more accurate.


ARN–FI was associated with less intraoperative bleeding and more accurate resection volume. These techniques may address existing challenges and provide rational guidance for laparoscopic anatomical S8 resection.

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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 82272132); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2022M721514); President's Fund of Zhujiang Hospital (Grant No. yzjj2022qn31); Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2021A1515011869); the Science and Technology Plan Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2021A1414020003); Regional Joint Fund of Guangdong (Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Research Team Project) (Grant No. 2021B1515130003).

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Correspondence to Chihua Fang MD or Jian Yang MD.

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Tao, H., Wang, Z., Zeng, X. et al. Augmented Reality Navigation Plus Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging Can Accurately Guide Laparoscopic Anatomical Segment 8 Resection. Ann Surg Oncol 30, 7373–7383 (2023).

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