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Trends and Disparities in Clinical Trial Enrollment as Part of First-Line Treatment for Upper Gastrointestinal and Hepatopancreatobiliary Malignancies

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The NCDB is a joint project of the Commission on Cancer (CoC) of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society. The CoC’s NCDB, and the hospitals participating in the CoCs NCDB, are the source of the de-identified data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.

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Pro00111050 was deemed exempt by the Duke University Health System Institutional Review Board.


K. Rhodin is supported by NIH 1R38AI140297.

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Correspondence to Kristen E. Rhodin MD.

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Vignesh Raman, Elishama Kanu, Austin Eckhoff, Daniel P. Nussbaum, Michael E. Lidsky, and Dan G. Blazer III have no disclosures to declare.

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Rhodin, K.E., Raman, V., Kanu, E. et al. Trends and Disparities in Clinical Trial Enrollment as Part of First-Line Treatment for Upper Gastrointestinal and Hepatopancreatobiliary Malignancies. Ann Surg Oncol 30, 5323–5326 (2023).

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