Skip to main content
Log in

The Landmark Series: Appendiceal Primary Peritoneal Surface Malignancy

  • Peritoneal Surface Malignancy
  • Published:
Annals of Surgical Oncology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Appendiceal primary peritoneal surface malignancies are rare and include a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from indolent disease to aggressive disease. As such, the data that drive the management of appendiceal peritoneal surface malignancies is generally not based on prospective clinical trial data, but rather consists of level 1 data based on retrospective studies and high-volume institutional experiences. Complete surgical debulking typically offers the best chance for long-term survival. This review highlights the landmark articles on which management of primary appendiceal peritoneal surface malignancies are based.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Adapted from Sugarbaker.53

Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Turaga KK, Pappas SG, Gamblin T. Importance of histologic subtype in the staging of appendiceal tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19:1379–85.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Connor SJ, Hanna GB, Frizelle FA. Appendiceal tumors: retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of appendiceal tumors from 7970 appendectomies. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:75–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Dineen SP, Royal RE, Hughes MS, et al. A simplified preoperative assessment predicts complete cytoreduction and outcomes in patients with low-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22:3640–6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Gilly FN, Cotte E, Brigand C, et al. Quantitative prognostic indices in peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006;32:597–601.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Harmon RL, Sugarbaker PH. Prognostic indicators in peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer. Int Semin Surg Oncol. 2005;2:3.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Yoon W, Alame A, Berri R. Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score as a predictor of resectability in the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies. Am J Surg. 2014;207:403–7; discussion 406–7.

  7. Votanopoulos KI, Shen P, Skardal A, Levine EA. Peritoneal metastases from appendiceal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin North Am. 2018;27:551–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Polanco PM, Ding Y, Knox JM, et al. Outcomes of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion in patients with high-grade, high-volume disseminated mucinous appendiceal neoplasms. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:382–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Jimenez W, Sardi A, Nieroda C, et al. Predictive and prognostic survival factors in peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendiceal cancer after cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:4218–25.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Esquivel J, Chua TC, Stojadinovic A, et al. Accuracy and clinical relevance of computed tomography scan interpretation of peritoneal cancer index in colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis: a multi-institutional study. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:565–70.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Flicek K, Ashfaq A, Johnson CD, Menias C, Bagaria S, Wasif N. Correlation of radiologic with surgical Peritoneal Cancer Index scores in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis: how well can we predict resectability? J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;20:307–12.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Laghi A, Bellini D, Rengo M, et al. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting peritoneal metastases: systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiol Med. 2017;122:1–15.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Esquivel J, Garcia SS, Hicken W, Seibel J, Shekitka K, Trout R. Evaluation of a new staging classification and a Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS) in 229 patients with mucinous appendiceal neoplasms with or without peritoneal dissemination. J Surg Oncol. 2014;110:656–60.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Chicago Consensus Working G. The Chicago Consensus on peritoneal surface malignancies: management of appendiceal neoplasms. Cancer. 2020;126:2525–33.

  15. Sugarbaker PH, Bijelic L, Chang D, Yoo D. Neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy in 34 consecutive patients with mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis of appendiceal origin. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:576–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Asare EA, Compton CC, Hanna NN, et al. The impact of stage, grade, and mucinous histology on the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy in adenocarcinomas of the appendix: analysis of the National Cancer Data Base. Cancer. 2016;122:213–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Kolla BC, Petersen A, Chengappa M, et al. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on outcomes in appendiceal cancer. Cancer Med. 2020;9:3400–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Lieu CH, Lambert LA, Wolff RA, et al. Systemic chemotherapy and surgical cytoreduction for poorly differentiated and signet ring cell adenocarcinomas of the appendix. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:652–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Milovanov V, Sardi A, Ledakis P, et al. Systemic chemotherapy (SC) before cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) in patients with peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis of appendiceal origin (PMCA). Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015;41:707–12.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Blackham AU, Swett K, Eng C, et al. Perioperative systemic chemotherapy for appendiceal mucinous carcinoma peritonei treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109:740–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Carr NJ, Cecil TD, Mohamed F, et al. A consensus for classification and pathologic reporting of pseudomyxoma peritonei and associated appendiceal neoplasia: the results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) modified Delphi process. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40:14–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Misdraji J, Yantiss RK, Graeme-Cook FM, Balis UJ, Young RH. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: a clinicopathologic analysis of 107 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:1089–103.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Carr NJ, Finch J, Ilesley IC, et al. Pathology and prognosis in pseudomyxoma peritonei: a review of 274 cases. J Clin Pathol. 2012;65:919–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Davison JM, Choudry HA, Pingpank JF, et al. Clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: identification of factors predicting survival and proposed criteria for a three-tiered assessment of tumor grade. Mod Pathol. 2014;27:1521–39.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Chua TC, Moran BJ, Sugarbaker PH, et al. Early- and long-term outcome data of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei from appendiceal origin treated by a strategy of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2449–56.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. O’Connell JT, Tomlinson JS, Roberts AA, McGonigle KF, Barsky SH. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a disease of MUC2-expressing goblet cells. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:551–64.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Ronnett BM, Zahn CM, Kurman RJ, Kass ME, Sugarbaker PH, Shmookler BM. Disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis: a clinicopathologic analysis of 109 cases with emphasis on distinguishing pathologic features, site of origin, prognosis, and relationship to “pseudomyxoma peritonei.” Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19:1390–408.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Sugarbaker PH. New standard of care for appendiceal epithelial neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome? Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:69–76.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Yantiss RK, Shia J, Klimstra DS, Hahn HP, Odze RD, Misdraji J. Prognostic significance of localized extra-appendiceal mucin deposition in appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:248–55.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Raghav KP, Shetty AV, Kazmi SM, et al. Impact of molecular alterations and targeted therapy in appendiceal adenocarcinomas. Oncologist. 2013;18:1270–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Levine EA, Blazer DG III, Kim MK, et al. Gene expression-profiling of peritoneal metastases from appendiceal and colon cancer demonstrates unique biologic signatures and predicts patient outcomes. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;214:599–606; discussion 606–7.

  32. Shetty S, Thomas P, Ramanan B, Sharma P, Govindarajan V, Loggie B. Kras mutations and p53 overexpression in pseudomyxoma peritonei: association with phenotype and prognosis. J Surg Res. 2013;180:97–103.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Jarvinen P, Kivela AJ, Nummela P, Lepisto A, Ristimaki A, Parkkila S. Carbonic anhydrase II: a novel biomarker for pseudomyxoma peritonei. APMIS. 2017;125:207–12.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Davison JM, Hartman DA, Singhi AD, et al. Loss of SMAD4 protein expression is associated with high tumor grade and poor prognosis in disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:583–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Levine EA, Votanopoulos KI, Qasem SA, et al. Prognostic molecular subtypes of low-grade cancer of the appendix. J Am Coll Surg. 2016;222:493–503.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Su J, Jin G, Votanopoulos KI, et al. Prognostic molecular classification of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020;27:1439–47.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Smeenk RM, Verwaal VJ, Antonini N, Zoetmulder FA. Survival analysis of pseudomyxoma peritonei patients treated by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg. 2007;245:104–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Elias D, Honore C, Ciuchendea R, et al. Peritoneal pseudomyxoma: results of a systematic policy of complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Br J Surg. 2008;95:1164–71.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Stewart JHt, Shen P, Russell GB, et al. Appendiceal neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination: outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:624–34.

  40. Chua TC, Yan TD, Smigielski ME, et al. Long-term survival in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: 10 years of experience from a single institution. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:1903–11.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Yan TD, Links M, Xu ZY, Kam PC, Glenn D, Morris DL. Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei from appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Br J Surg. 2006;93:1270–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Sugarbaker PH, Chang D. Results of treatment of 385 patients with peritoneal surface spread of appendiceal malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6:727–31.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Elias D, Gilly F, Quenet F, et al. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: a French multicentric study of 301 patients treated with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010;36:456–62.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Moran B, Cecil T, Chandrakumaran K, Arnold S, Mohamed F, Venkatasubramaniam A. The results of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in 1200 patients with peritoneal malignancy. Colorectal Dis. 2015;17:772–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Sugarbaker PH. Peritonectomy procedures. Ann Surg. 1995;221:29–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Dagbert F, Passot G, Glehen O, Bakrin N. Glisson capsulectomy for extensive superficial liver involvement in peritoneal carcinomatosis (with video). J Visceral Surg. 2015;152:332–3.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Passot G, Kim BJ, Vaudoyer D, et al. Digital glissonectomy: a safe perihepatic peritonectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:3978–85.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Deraco M, Baratti D, Kusamura S, Laterza B, Balestra MR. Surgical technique of parietal and visceral peritonectomy for peritoneal surface malignancies. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100:321–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Cazauran JB, Lasseur A, Pasquer A, et al. Total mesenteric peritonectomy for peritoneal metastases (with video). Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24:3988–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Sugarbaker PH. Peritonectomy procedures. Surg Oncol Clin North Am. 2003;12:703–27, xiii.

  51. Levine EA, Stewart JHt, Shen P, Russell GB, Loggie BL, Votanopoulos KI. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy: experience with 1000 patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218:573–85.

  52. Shen P, Levine EA, Hall J, et al. Factors predicting survival after intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy with mitomycin C after cytoreductive surgery for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Arch Surg. 2003;138:26–33.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Sugarbaker PH. Successful management of microscopic residual disease in large bowel cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1999;43(Suppl):S15-25.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Jacquet P, Sugarbaker PH. Clinical research methodologies in diagnosis and staging of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Treat Res. 1996;82:359–74.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Levine EA, Stewart JHt, Russell GB, Geisinger KR, Loggie BL, Shen P. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy: experience with 501 procedures. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;204:943–53; discussion 953–5.

  56. Ortega-Deballon P, Facy O, Jambet S, et al. Which method to deliver hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin? An experimental comparison of open and closed techniques. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1957–63.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Leiting JL, Cloyd JM, Ahmed A, et al. Comparison of open and closed hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: results from the United States hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy collaborative. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2020;12:756–67.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Goodman MD, McPartland S, Detelich D, Saif MW. Chemotherapy for intraperitoneal use: a review of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2016;7:45–57.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. Votanopoulos K, Ihemelandu C, Shen P, Stewart J, Russell G, Levine EA. A comparison of hematologic toxicity profiles after heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and mitomycin C. J Surg Res. 2013;179:e133–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Leung V, Huo YR, Liauw W, Morris DL. Oxaliplatin versus mitomycin C for HIPEC in colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43:144–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Prada-Villaverde A, Esquivel J, Lowy AM, et al. The American Society of Peritoneal Surface Malignancies evaluation of HIPEC with mitomycin C versus oxaliplatin in 539 patients with colon cancer undergoing a complete cytoreductive surgery. J Surg Oncol. 2014;110:779–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Hompes D, D’Hoore A, Wolthuis A, et al. The use of oxaliplatin or mitomycin C in HIPEC treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a comparative study. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109:527–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Levine EA, Votanopoulos KI, Shen P, et al. A multicenter randomized trial to evaluate hematologic toxicities after hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin or mitomycin in patients with appendiceal tumors. J Am Coll Surg. 2018;226:434–43.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Verwaal VJ, van Ruth S, de Bree E, et al. Randomized trial of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy and palliative surgery in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:3737–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Grotz TE, Overman MJ, Eng C, et al. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for moderately and poorly differentiated appendiceal adenocarcinoma: survival outcomes and patient selection. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24:2646–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. El Halabi H, Gushchin V, Francis J, et al. The role of cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) in patients with high-grade appendiceal carcinoma and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19:110–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Levinsky NC, Morris MC, Wima K, et al. Should we be doing cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC for signet ring cell appendiceal adenocarcinoma? A study from the US HIPEC Collaborative. J Gastrointest Surg. 2020;24:155–64.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Lamarca A, Nonaka D, Lopez Escola C, et al. Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids: management considerations from a reference peritoneal tumour service centre and ENETS Centre of Excellence. Neuroendocrinology. 2016;103:500–17.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Brathwaite S, Rock J, Yearsley MM, et al. Mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma: an aggressive clinical entity. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:2281–6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Tang LH, Shia J, Soslow RA, et al. Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1429–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Sluiter NR, van der Bilt JD, Croll DMR, et al. Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) versus surgery without HIPEC for goblet-cell carcinoids and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas: propensity score-matched analysis of centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2020;19:e87-99.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Tsang ES, McConnell YJ, Schaeffer DF, et al. Outcomes of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Ann Surg Oncol. 2018;25:2391–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Randle RW, Griffith KF, Fino NF, et al. Appendiceal goblet cell carcinomatosis treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Surg Res. 2015;196:229–34.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. McQuellon RP, Danhauer SC, Russell GB, et al. Monitoring health outcomes following cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:1105–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. McQuellon RP, Loggie BW, Lehman AB, et al. Long-term survivorship and quality of life after cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2003;10:155–62.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. McQuellon RP, Loggie BW, Fleming RA, Russell GB, Lehman AB, Rambo TD. Quality of life after intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2001;27:65–73.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Schmidt U, Dahlke MH, Klempnauer J, Schlitt HJ, Piso P. Perioperative morbidity and quality of life in long-term survivors following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005;31:53–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Tuttle TM, Zhang Y, Greeno E, Knutsen A. Toxicity and quality of life after cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:1627–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Hill AR, McQuellon RP, Russell GB, Shen P, Stewart JHt, Levine EA. Survival and quality of life following cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colonic origin. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:3673–9.

  80. Chia CS, Tan GH, Lim C, Soo KC, Teo MC. Prospective quality of life study for colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:2905–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Leimkuhler M, Hentzen J, Hemmer PHJ, et al. Systematic review of factors affecting quality of life after cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020;27:3973–83.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. Foster JM, Sleightholm R, Patel A, et al. Morbidity and mortality rates following cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy compared with other high-risk surgical oncology procedures. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2:e186847.

  83. Deraco M, Baratti D, Inglese MG, et al. Peritonectomy and intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion (IPHP): a strategy that has confirmed its efficacy in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004;11:393–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Loungnarath R, Causeret S, Bossard N, et al. Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia for the treatment of pseudomyxoma peritonei: a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1372–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Cioppa T, Vaira M, Bing C, D’Amico S, Bruscino A, De Simone M. Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from pseudomyxoma peritonei. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:6817–23.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. Marcotte E, Sideris L, Drolet P, et al. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from appendix: preliminary results of a survival analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:2701–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexandra Gangi MD.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gangi, A., Shah, R. The Landmark Series: Appendiceal Primary Peritoneal Surface Malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol 29, 2056–2068 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10856-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10856-8

Navigation